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Four Things Therefore by harlotscurse

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Four Things Therefore
<center>**~ [Finnegans Wake – A Prescriptive Guide](https://steemit.com/literature/@harlotscurse/finnegans-wake-a-prescriptive-guide-1) ~**</center>

<center>https://i.imgur.com/gxrRjQr.jpg</center><center>**(RFW 011.09–011.16)**</center>

The preceding paragraph of James Joyce’s _Finnegans Wake_ concluded with four statements, each of which was supposedly uttered by one of The Four Old Men. This quartet of elderly figures features heavily in the _Wake_. They carry much of the book’s narration, as well as appearing as characters in their own right. Symbolically, they represent both Space and Time—or, if your prefer, Spacetime—and were represented in Joyce’s notes by the siglum **X**:

>... Joyce’s four old men represent in the first place Space, being geographically the four points of the compass and literally the first four letters of the Hebrew alphabet—thus standing for all the other letters and so representing literary space ... They represent the four walls of the room and the four posts of the bed, watching impotently and enviously the actions of the ever-changing figures that occupy the space between them. They are Aleph, Beth, Ghimel and Daleth, eternal beings ... Their order is unchangeable: North, South, East and West. It is probably from the old prayer ‘Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, bless the bed that I lie on’, that they become also the evangelists for they are still in the same order. As the four provinces they occur invariably as Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connaught; never getting out of their order of precedence, and usually even speaking in that order. But I think it is as circumambient space that they are really important. They have been there all the time and know everything that has happened. (Atherton 54-55)

Their temporal role is characterized by their identification with the Four Evangelists, who recorded the history of Christ, and with the [Four Masters](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annals_of_the_Four_Masters), who recorded the history of Ireland:

>Finally, it must be remembered that **X** are the Four Masters, the historians of Ireland. Individual correspondences are improbable, but the term Masters is implicit in its most literal sense. **X** are ultimately rulers, judges and authorities ... (McHugh 1976:100)

On a more mundane level, however:

>These four again coalesce with four old men, familiars to the tavern of HCE, who forever sit around fatuously rechewing tales of the good old days. (Campbell _et al_ 43 fn)

In _Finnegans Wake_, The Four often merge to form a composite character called Mamalujo (MAtthew-MArk-LUke-JOhn). In the passage we are now examining, this character appears as Mammon Lujius, a historian like his predecessors Herodotus and Livius.

The Four share their spacetime duties with The Twelve, a Greek chorus of regulars in HCE’s tavern. Joyce assigns them the siglum **O**, which I believe is derived from the dial of HCE’s pocket watch. If **X** are primarily spatial, then **O** are primarily temporal. They are the twelve hours of the day and the twelve months of the year. And if **X** are judges, then **O** are jurymen. They embody the Twelve Tables of Roman Law and express themselves in sesquipedalian words of Latinate construction.

<center>https://i.imgur.com/Fib2ZfE.jpg</center><center>**Joyce’s Sigla for The Four Old Men and The Twelve**</center>

# Viconian Cycle #
Whenever the number four surfaces in _Finnegans Wake_, the reader should always suspect an allusion to the Viconian Cycle, the cyclical model of human history devised by the 18th-century Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico, which Joyce used as a template for his novel. In _Finnegans Wake_, the Viconian Cycle has four quadrants, corresponding loosely to the four books into which the work is divided:

Here is how Roland McHugh summarized the relevance of Vico to a reading of _Finnegans Wake_:

<div class="pull-right">
https://i.imgsafe.org/1fe5b83270.jpg
<center><b>Giambattista Vico</b></center>
</div>

>Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) is the author of _Principi di Scienza Nuova_ (_The New Science_), in which is expounded his theory that a common cyclical pattern identifies the histories of diverse nations. The cycle consists of (1) the age of gods, represented in primitive society by the family life of the cave, to which God’s thunder had driven man; (2) the age of heroes, characterized by the continual revolutionary movements of the plebeians against the patricians; (3) the age of people, the final consequence of the leveling influence of revolutions. The three ages are typified by the institutions of birth, marriage, and burial, respectively, and followed by a short lacuna, the _ricorso_ (resurrection) linking the third age to the first of a subsequent cycle. These four periods are illustrated by the four books into which _Finnegans Wake_ is divided and also by concise references to attributes of the ages (e.g., their institutions). (McHugh 2006:xiv-xv)

Book IV represents the _ricorso_, or recurrence of human things, where the Viconian Cycle closes upon itself in the manner of an [ouroboros](https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ouroboros) and begins over again. This is a Joycean modification of Vico’s tripartite structure. In Vico’s _New Science_, the term _ricorso_ simply describes the manner in which each cycle echoes the events of previous cycles. It is not an episode in its own right, as many commentators on Joyce seem to imply.

# First Draft Version #
The first draft of this paragraph is brief and unadorned:

>And four things, saith Mamalu[jo], sall ne’er fail in Dyfflinarsky. A swellhead on an alderman. A shoe on a poor old woman. An auburn maid to be deserted. A pen no weightier than a polepost. And so. And all. (Hayman 53)

These four things can be equated with the book’s principal characters, the members of the family whose story Joyce is telling in a new way:

 * **A swellhead on an alderman** = HCE

 * **A shoe on a poor old woman** = ALP

 * **An auburn maid to be deserted** = Issy

 * **A pen no weightier than a polepost** = Shem the Pen and Shaun the Post

>At 013.20 [RFW 011.09] **X** announced that four things in Dublin ne’er shall fail till heathersmoke and cloudweed Eire’s isle shall pall. These four last things are conspecta of [HCE], [ALP], [Issy] and [Shem/Shaun]. They are first listed in running print in collation with the Jewish calendar ... (McHugh 1976:47)

It need hardly be repeated that this entire passage (RFW 011.09–012.07) is ultimately about ALP’s celebrated Letter, continuing the discussion of this multilayered document that began back on page nine (RFW 09), when the gnarlybird discovered its remains in the kitchen midden behind The Mullingar House. Joyce is still looking forward to I.5, _The Mamafesta_, in which the Letter will be dissected, deconstructed and analysed in detail.

<center>https://i.imgur.com/obIUwcp.jpg</center><center>**Bloody Foreland**</center>

# Final Draft #
When _Finnegans Wake_ was published in 1939, this passage had been elaborated significantly by Joyce. The connection of the Four with the Four Masters is made explicit by the reference to the **grand old historiorum, wrote near Boriorum**. Boriorum refers to the Βορειον Ἀκρον [Boreion Akron], or Northern Cape, in the description of Ireland in Claudius Ptolemy’s _Geography_. It probably refers to Bloody Foreland (Cnoc Fola), a headland in County Donegal in the northwest of Ireland. _The Annals of the Four Masters_ were compiled near a Franciscan monastery in Donegal:

>It remains now to say something of the monastery of Donegal, near which these Annals were compiled, and from which they have been called _Annales Dungallenses_ [_Annals of Donegal_]. It is situated on the bay of Donegal, in the barony of Tirhugh, and county of Donegal ... The remains of this monastery are still to be seen, in tolerable preservation, at a short distance from the town of Donegal ... On the 2nd of August, 1601, the building was occupied by a garrison of 500 English soldiers ... Shortly afterwards, O’Donnell laid siege to this garrison, and on the 19th of September following the building took fire, and was completely destroyed ... After the restoration of Rory O’Donnell to his possessions, the brotherhood were permitted to live in huts or cottages near the monastery ... It was in one of these cottages, and not, as is generally supposed, in the great monastery now in ruins, that this work was compiled by the Four Masters. (O’Donovan xxviii-xxix)

(It is now thought that the _Annals_ were actually compiled at a Franciscan house of refuge on the River Drowes in County Leitrim, just outside Ballyshannon. Perhaps John O’Donovan was referring to this house of refuge, which is over 20 km from the ruined abbey, when he wrote of _huts or cottages near the monastery_.)

<center>https://i.imgur.com/xWRnZNX.jpg</center><center>**Donegal Franciscan Abbey**</center>

The phrase **baile’s annals** reminds us also of the so-called _Annals of Dublin_ (_Baile Átha Cliath_ being an Irish name for Dublin). These were a collection of annals collated from various sources by early Irish antiquaries (such as John Ware, his son Robert Ware, and the husband of his great-granddaughter Walter Harris) and appended to Thom’s Official Directory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Among these annals, the following may be noted:

>**140** Eblana, supposed to be Dublin, noticed by Ptolemy, the geographer, as a famous city. It was called by the Irish, Athcliath, or Bally-Athcliath, “the town of hurdles,” from a ford across the Liffey, then constructed of hurdles.
>
>**1331** A great famine relieved by a prodigious shoal of fish, called Turlehydes, being cast on shore at the mouth of the Dodder. They were from 30 to 40 feet (10-12 m) long, and so thick that men standing on each side of one of them could not see those on the other. Upwards of 200 of them were killed by the people. (Thom & Co 2090, 2092)

Dyfflinarsky refers to the Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin:

>During the ninth and tenth centuries the Kingdom of Dublin—known to the Scandinavians as _Dyflinarski_—became one of the most powerful in the west. (A Walsh 22)

The **bluest book in baile’s annals** also, of course, refers to _Ulysses_, which was not only published in a blue dust-jacket, but also denounced as filthy and pornographic—ie blue.

<center>https://i.imgur.com/TNXhayV.jpg</center><center>**_Ulysses_ (1922)**</center>

Why does Joyce abbreviate _four things_ to _f.t._ ? Joseph Campbell & Henry Morton Robinson have suggested the following:

>f.t.: four things. Abbreviation by initialing occurs frequently in the medieval Irish chronicles. (Campbell _et al_ 43 fn)

We also have the Danish: **for tiden**, _at the present time_, which lends a time-transcending quality to the following annals. Note the Danish: **til**, _until_ in the next line.

Why the four things shall abide till **heathersmoke and cloudweed Eire’s ile sall pall** I cannot say. This phrase derives from an enigmatic note written in orange pencil in one of Joyce’s _Finnegans Wake_ notebooks:

>heath & tobacco
>overspun Earth ([FW VI.B.15.5](http://jjda.ie/main/JJDA/F/flex/a/lexa.htm))

I presume _overspun_ should read _overspanned_, or perhaps even _overspread_. But how does Joyce get **cloudweed** out of this? Is tobacco a weed which creates clouds of smoke? The initialism HCE is in there, to be sure, so the overall meaning seems to be that the quadripartite Viconian Cycle shall continue to turn so long as Everyman exists.

McHugh, as we have seen, calls these four things “[conspecta](https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/conspectus#Participle)” of the sigla of HCE, ALP, Issy and Shem/Shaun—whatever that means (McHugh 1976:47, 97)—and links them with The Four Old Men. Note, though, that he now regards the fourth thing as representing the Oedipal figure, who combines Shem and Shaun into a single character:

>A more useful collation is that between **X** and the respective sigla [HCE], [ALP], [Issy] and [Oedipus] ... The four conspecta are figures on the sides of the spinning teetotum, itself a figure of _FW_:
>Matthew: An alderman carrying a pot on a pole. A turleyhide whale. [HCE]
>Mark: A poor old woman. A crone of immense fecundity. [ALP]
>Luke: A redhaired maid. _The Deserted Village_. [Issy]
>John: Twins, the pen and the sword. [Oedipus]
>(McHugh 1976:96-97)

The allusion to a spinning [teetotum](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teetotum)—a Jewish dreidel, for example —is obvious in the published version:

>the fear of um. T. Totities! (FW 013.24)

But in _The Restored Finnegans Wake_, Rose & O’Hanlon have emended this to:

>the fear of um. Notities! (RFW 011.12)

This is supported by an entry written in orange pencil in one of Joyce’s _Finnegans Wake_ notebooks:

>Notities ([FW VI.B.35.1](http://jjda.ie/main/JJDA/F/flex/a/lexa.htm))

[_Notities_](https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/notitia), a collateral form of _notitia_, is Latin for _fame_, _celebrity_, _being known_ (Lewis 1218)

<center>https://i.imgur.com/GzS0X7G.jpg</center><center>**A Four-Sided Teetotum**</center>

The image of a pot on a pole recurs frequently throughout _Finnegans Wake_ in connection with HCE. Why should this particular motif represent the book’s protagonist? John Gordon has probably solved this mystery. While taking a survey of the furnishings of the master bedroom in HCE’s tavern, he writes:

>The most prominent feature of the bed is the bedposts, each aligned with one cardinal point of the compass ... Three other items in the room, a chamber-pot, a hat, and a bell-pull or buzzer ... The hat—generally described as a bucket-shaped affair—is whisked before our eyes in one of the book’s teases when an actress is described as speaking ‘while recoopering her cartwheel chapot (ahat!—and we now know what thimbles a baquets on lallance a talls mean)’ (59.06-7) [RFW 047.28-30]. If this means anything it means that ‘tombles a’buckets’ of 5.03 [RFW 004.28], ‘clottering down’ the bauble-topped tower there is the same thing as the thimble-shaped _baquet_ [French, _tub_] on the tall lance there—that is, a hat. As such it is perhaps the primary source of the pot-on-pole insignia already mentioned, and the readiest way of accounting for it is to conclude that HCE, like many men, has hung his hat on the handiest vertical, one of his knob-topped bedposts ... (Gordon 19-20)

<center>https://i.imgur.com/tTIk1k1.jpg</center><center>**A Four-Post Bed**</center>

In the final draft, the four things that shall abide are now assigned months from the Jewish calendar (Adar, Nisan, Tammuz and Marcheshvan). And they are followed by the characteristic sighs (RFW 006.14: **So sigh us**) of The Four Old Men (some of which undergo alterations throughout the text):

 * Matthew Gregory: **Ay, ay!**
 * Mark Lyons: **Ah, ho!**
 * Luke Tarpey: **Adear, adear!**
 * Johnny MacDougall: **And so. And all**

The paragraph ends with a fifth Jewish term, **Succoth**, or the Feast of Tabernacles. In _Finnegans Wake_, Johnny MacDougall is always accompanied by his donkey, the “fifth” member of the quartet. The Four are identified with the four provinces of Ireland, but for much of its history Ireland comprised five provinces: Ulster, Munster, Leinster, Connacht and Meath, the latter being the Royal Province that included Tara. The donkey represents Meath. Note how in the first draft of this paragraph (quoted above), the four things were already followed by a fifth item: **And so. And all.**

Succoth, however, was also the boyhood name of St Patrick:

>Towards the end of the fourth, and at the beginning of the fifth century, King Niall of the Nine Hostages went on successive expeditions against the peoples of Gaul and Britain. Amongst the captives brought back from one of these foreign raids was Succoth, a lad of sixteen, the son of Decurion Calpurnius, and his wife Conchessa, who was a relative of the great St. Martin of Tours. The boy Succoth, afterwards called Patricius, probably in allusion to his noble birth, was sold as a slave in Ireland, and employed by his master Milcho to tend his cattle on the slopes of Slieve Mish in Antrim. (Flood 10)

The Jewish terms may have been added to give the Irish annals a universal dimension, and to reinforce the temporal element of The Four. According to Rose & O’Hanlon’s _James Joyce Digital Archive_, Joyce took the first four Jewish terms from the article _Belshazzar_ in the 11th Edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_:

>On the 14th of **Tammuz** (June), 538 B.C., Nabonidos fled from Sippara, where he had taken his son’s place in the camp, and the city surrendered at once to the enemy. Meanwhile Gobryas had been despatched to Babylon, which opened its gates to the invader on the 16th of the month “without combat or battle,” and a few days later Nabonidos was dragged from his hiding-place and made a prisoner. According to Berossus he was subsequently appointed governor of Karmania by his conqueror. Belshazzar, however, still held out, and it was probably on this account that Cyrus himself did not arrive at Babylon until nearly four months later, on the 3rd of **Marchesvan**. On the 11th of that month Gobryas was despatched to put an end to the last semblance of resistance in the country “and the son (?) of the king died.” In accordance with the conciliatory policy of Cyrus, a general mourning was proclaimed on account of his death, and this lasted for six days, from the 27th of **Adar** to the 3rd of **Nisan**. Unfortunately the character representing the word “son” is indistinct on the tablet which contains the annals of Nabonidos, so that the reading is not absolutely certain. The only other reading possible, however, is “and the king died,” and this reading is excluded partly by the fact that Nabonidos afterwards became a Persian **satrap**, partly by the silence which would otherwise be maintained by the “**Annals**” in regard to the fate of Belshazzar. (Chisholm 712)

This article also mentions a Persian satrap (RFW 011:40 **sultrup**) and “Annals”. It is hardly a coincidence that the same page contains an article on the Celtic festival _Beltane_. Joyce probably spotted the article on Belshazzar while he was researching Beltane for this passage, as Beltane is alluded to in the phrase **Baalfire’s eve** at RFW 011.23:

>As to the derivation of the word beltane there is considerable obscurity. Following [Cormac](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanas_Cormaic), it has been usual to regard it as representing a combination of the name of the god Bel or Baal or Bil with the Celtic _teine_, fire. And on this etymology theories have been erected of the connexion of the Semitic Baal with Celtic mythology, and the identification of the beltane fires with the worship of this deity. (Chisholm 712)

To underline the universal nature of the four last things, Joyce adds some Latinate numerals. the first three of which also echo Irish prepositional pronouns: **umam**, _around me_ : **dom**, _to me_, _for me_ : **tríom**, _through me_. Hebrew, Latin, Irish, English—Joyce likes to cover all his bases.

---
## References ##
 * [Hugh Chisholm (editor)](https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabrit03chisrich/page/712), _The Encyclopaedia Britannica_, Eleventh Edition, Volume 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1911)
 * [Joseph Campbell, Henry Morton Robinson, Edmund L Epstein (editor)](https://www.scribd.com/book/117176406/A-Skeleton-Key-to-Finnegans-Wake), _A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake_, New World Library, Novato CA (2005)
 * [Richard Ellmann](https://global.oup.com/academic/product/james-joyce-9780195031034?lang=en&cc=md), _James Joyce_, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1982)
 * [Joseph Mary Flood](https://archive.org/details/irelanditssaints00flooiala/page/10), _Ireland: Its Saints and Scholars_, The Talbot Press Ltd, Dublin (1882)
 * [John Gordon](https://books.google.com/books?id=InCmQW7K1QUC), _Finnegans Wake: A Plot Summary_, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse NY (1986)
 * [Stephen Gwynn](https://archive.org/details/historyofireland000217mbp/page/n41), _The History of Ireland_, The Macmillan Company, New York (1923)
 * [David Hayman](http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/JoyceColl/JoyceColl-idx?type=header&id=JoyceColl.HaymanFirstDrft&isize=M&pview=hide), _A First-Draft Version of **Finnegans Wake**_, University of Texas Press, Austin TX (1963)
 * [James Joyce](https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Ulysses_(1922)), _Ulysses_, Shakespeare & Company, Paris (1922)
 * [James Joyce](https://archive.org/stream/finneganswake00joycuoft#page/n7/mode/2up), _Finnegans Wake_, The Viking Press, New York (1958, 1966)
 * [Charlton T Lewis, Charles Short](https://archive.org/stream/LewisAndShortANewLatinDictionary/lewisandshort#page/n1456/mode/1up), _A New Latin Dictionary_, Harper & Brothers, Publishers, New York (1891)
 * [Roland McHugh](http://www.ucpress.edu/op.php?isbn=9780520042988), _The Sigla of Finnegans Wake_, University of Texas Press, Austin TX (1976)
 * Roland McHugh, _Annotations to Finnegans Wake_ (Third Edition), The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD (2006)
 * [John O’Donovan (translator & editor)](https://archive.org/details/annalsofkingdomo01ocle/page/n31), _Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters_, Second Edition, Volume 1, Hodges, Smith, and Co, Dublin (1856)
 * Arthur Power, _From the Old Waterford House_, Carthage Press, Waterford (1940)
 * [Danis Rose, John O’Hanlon](https://www.penguin.co.uk/books/176988/the-restored-finnegans-wake/), _The Restored Finnegans Wake_, Penguin Classics, London (2012)
 * [Édouard Schuré](https://archive.org/details/lesgrandeslgend00schugoog/page/n181), _Les Grandes Légendes de France_, Perrin et Compagnie, Paris (1892)
 * [Edward Sullivan](https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.101770/2015.101770.The-Book-Of-Kells#page/n5/mode/2up), _The Book of Kells: Described by Sir Edward Sullivan, Bart., and Illustrated with Twenty-Four Plates in Colour_, Third Edition, “The Studio” Limited, London (1927)
 * [Alexander Thom & Co](http://www.riverrun.org.uk/joycetools.html), _Thom’s Official Directory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the Year 1904_, Alexander Thom & Co, Dublin (1904)
 * [Giambattista Vico](https://archive.org/details/principjdiunasc00vicogoog/page/n9), _Principj di Scienza Nuova_, Alcide Parenti, Florence (1847)
 * [Giambattista Vico](https://archive.org/stream/newscienceofgiam030174mbp#page/n7), Goddard Bergin (translator), Max Harold Fisch (translator), _The New Science of Giambattista Vico_, Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY (1948)
 * [A Walsh](https://archive.org/details/scandinavianrela00walsiala/page/22), _Scandinavian Relations with Ireland During the Viking Period_, The Talbot Press Limited, Dublin (1922)


## Image Credits ##
 * [Sihtric Rex Dyflin](https://oldcurrencyexchange.com/2015/08/09/who-introduced-anglo-saxon-coins-to-ireland/): Early 11th-Century Coin of Sihtric III of Dublin, © The Old Currency Exchange, Fair Use
 * [Giambattista Vico](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GiambattistaVico.jpg): Wikimedia Commons, Francesco Solimena, Public Domain
 * [Bloody Foreland](http://en-ie.topographic-map.com/places/Knockfola-7203145/): Self-Made after Topographic Maps, Map Dato © 2018 Google, Fair Use
 * [Donegal Franciscan Abbey](http://monastic.ie/history/donegal-franciscan-friary/): © The Discovery Programme, Fair Use
 * [_Ulysses_ (1922)](https://www.pinterest.ie/bibliobooks/irish-literature/): Public Domain
 * [A Four-Sided Teetotum](https://www.slideserve.com/soren/the-historical-background-of-hanukkah): © [soren](https://www.slideserve.com/soren), Fair Use
 * [A Four-Post Bed](https://www.pinterest.ie/pin/498210777501457173/): Copyright Unknown, Fair Use

## Useful Resources ##
 * [Joyce Tools](http://www.riverrun.org.uk/joycetools.html)
 * [FWEET](http://www.fweet.org/cgi-bin/fw_grep.cgi?r=1&f=100&b=1&i=1&o=1&s=%5E013)
 * [The James Joyce Scholars’ Collection](https://uwdc.library.wisc.edu/collections/JoyceColl/)
 * [FinnegansWiki](http://www.finnegansweb.com/wiki/index.php/Page_13)
 * [James Joyce Digital Archive](http://jjda.ie/main/JJDA/F/FWHome.htm)
 * [Annotated _Finnegans Wake_ (with Wakepedia)](http://fwannotated.blogspot.com/2014/09/p13e.html)
 * [From Swerve of Shore to Bend of Bay](http://peterchrisp.blogspot.com/2014/02/mamalujo-1924.html)

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vote details (493)
@curie ·
Congrats on a Curie vote!
Hi harlotscurse,
<div class="pull-right">
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This post  has been upvoted by the Curie community curation project and associated vote trail as exceptional content (human curated and reviewed).  Have a great day :) <br>
 
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vote details (1)
@marcybetancourt ·
Very interesting this post. The number 4 I see as something Kabbalistic I do not know if the books you cite like this point. 4 cardinal points, 4 evangelists, the year divided into 4, the X with 4 angles, the day and its quarter hours. In short, a series of coincidences that collects literature. You do a great job of Finnegans Wake, thanks. 
A cordial greeting @harlotscurse
👍  
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@iamsaray ·
Hello Hello!

I think it is one of the best articles I have read on the day for its good arguments with the subject! Congratulations and thanks for sharing :)

Greetings from Venezuela ♡
👍  
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@steemitboard ·
Congratulations @harlotscurse! You have completed the following achievement on the Steem blockchain and have been rewarded with new badge(s) :

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vote details (1)
@road2horizon ·
ehy dear @harlotscurse! how much symbolism hides behind and inside the works of great writers! how much passion we put ourselves in trying to discover the truths that are hidden between the lines, the non-explicit messages that have been left for the readers. why have these atoms had the need to use metalanguages to tell us something? in any case you have made a great post, very detailed and thorough. keep on and congratulations on your curie rating
👍  
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@hafsa1 ·
its a interesting popst dear.. i love you
👍  
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