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读书会:《三十六计》胜战计第二计 围魏救赵 by goodreader

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· @goodreader ·
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读书会:《三十六计》胜战计第二计 围魏救赵
# 第二计 围魏救赵

## 原文
共敌不如分敌(1),敌阳不如敌阴(2)。

## 按语
治兵如治水:锐者避其锋,如导流;弱者塞其虚,如筑堰。

故当齐救赵时,孙子谓田忌曰:“夫解杂乱纠纷者不控拳(3),救斗者不搏击(4),批亢捣虚(5),形格势禁(6),则自为解耳。”
 
## 注释
(1)共敌、分敌:这里是指集中的敌人与分散的敌人。  
(2)敌阳、敌阴:敌,攻打;阳,这里是指公开、正面、先发制人;阴,这里是指隐蔽、侧面、后发制人。敌阳不如敌阴,指正面攻敌,不如从侧面攻敌。  
(3)解杂乱纠纷者不控拳:要解开杂乱纷繁的纽结,不能握紧拳头。控,抓紧。  
(4)救斗者不搏击:要解救打架的人,自己不能参与打斗。搏,打。  
(5)批亢捣虚:攻击要害之处,攻打薄弱环节。批,用手打击,攻击;亢,咽喉,比喻要害之处。  
(6)形格势禁:受阻碍的困难局面。格,受阻碍。  

## 原文翻译  
让敌人集中,不如让敌人分散。从正面攻敌,不如从侧面攻打防守相对薄弱之敌。

## 按语翻译
治兵就像治理洪水一样:对于来势凶猛的敌人,要避开它的锋芒,就好比治理洪水要导流一样;对于弱势的敌人,要堵住它,歼灭它,就好比治理洪水要修筑河堤一样。

所以,当齐国派兵去解赵都邯郸之围时,孙膑对田忌说:“要解开杂乱纷繁的纽结,不能握紧拳头;要解救打架的人,不能自己参与打斗;只要抓住敌方要害,攻其薄弱环节,使敌方处于受阻的困难局面,赵都之围便自然而然解除了。”
 
## 计名解析
魏、赵,战国时期中原地区的两个国家。其中魏都大梁在今河南开封,赵都邯郸在今河北邯郸。

原意是指在魏国包围了赵国的时候,不直接去赵国解围,而是通过反过来包围魏国国都的办法,迫使其回救而解赵之困。引申为通过围攻来犯之敌的后方据点,迫使其撤回兵力的作战方法。
 
在这条计策中,“围魏”和“救赵”之间有着必然的因果关系,“围魏”是手段,“救赵”是结果。这可以说是一种避实击虚的策略。

# 本帖steem首发
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# 阅读者 GoodReader
做一个优秀的读者,不因个人偏好而错过有意思的原创观点.
To be an excellent reader, don't miss interesting original ideas because of personal preference!

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@amico ·
💜 I love you,  @goodreader! Even while you keep flagging my posts on hive without giving me an explanation.
A huge hug! 🤗
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