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读书会:《三十六计》胜战计第三计 借刀杀人 by goodreader

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读书会:《三十六计》胜战计第三计 借刀杀人
# 第三计 借刀杀人

## 原文
敌已明,友未定(1),引友杀敌(2),不自出力。以《损》推演(3)。

## 按语
敌象已露,而另一势力更张(4),将有所为,便应借此力以毁敌人。

如:郑桓公将欲袭郐(5),先向郐之豪杰、良臣、辩智、果敢之士,尽书姓名,择郐之良田赂之,为官爵之名而书之,因为设坛场郭门之外而埋之,衅之以鸡缎,若盟状(6)。郐君以为内难也,而尽杀其良臣。桓公袭郐,遂取之。

诸葛亮之和吴拒魏,及关羽围樊、襄,曹欲徙都,懿及蒋济说曹曰:“刘备、孙权外亲内疏,关羽得志,权必不愿也。可遣人劝蹑其后,许割江南以封权,则樊围自解。”曹从之,羽遂见擒。
 
## 注释
(1)敌已明,友未定:指打击的敌对目标已经明确,而盟友的态度却一时尚未确定。  
(2)引友杀敌:引,引诱。引友杀敌,即引诱盟友的力量,去消灭敌人。  
(3)以《损》推演:根据损卦“损下益上”、“损阳益阴”的逻辑去推演。  
(4)敌象已露,而另一势力更张:敌象,攻击的对象;张,伸展。
(5)郐:周朝国名,在今河南密县东北。  
(6)衅之以鸡缎,若盟状:衅,杀牲以血涂于器皿上祭祀;盟,在血祭前发誓缔约。

## 原文翻译  
敌人已经明确,盟友的态度尚在犹豫之中,这时应极力设法诱使盟友去攻打敌人,以保存自己的实力。这是从《周易损》卦中推演出来的。

## 按语翻译
敌对势力的迹象已经显露出来,如果又发现另一种势力正在发展,且不久就会有所行动,这时就应借此势力去摧毁敌人。

比如,郑桓公将要攻打郐国,先罗列了郐国的豪杰、忠臣、善辩智者、英勇果敢之士的名单,公开张贴布告,说要把郐国的良田赠送给他们,封给他们各种官爵,并在城郊设起祭坛,把名单埋在地下,杀鸡血染锦缎,装作盟誓的样子。郐国国君以为国内这些豪杰、良臣要勾结郑国作乱,便按照以上公布的名单把他们一个个杀掉了。桓公看到郐国豪杰、良臣都已除尽,便马上攻打郐国,并占领了郐国。

又如,诸葛亮与吴国结盟,抗拒曹操。当关羽围攻魏地襄阳、樊城时,曹操吓得准备迁都。司马懿及蒋济劝说曹操道:“刘备、孙权表面上是亲戚,实际上隔阂却很深,如果关羽的目的达到了,孙权内心肯定是不甘愿的。因此,可以派人去劝说孙权攻关羽后方,答应割让江南的土地封给孙权,这样,樊城的包围就会自然解除。”曹操听从此计,关羽终于败走麦城,最后被孙权所擒。
 
## 计名解析
借刀杀人,原指不用自己的刀而借用别人的刀去杀人,这样自己既可以不被发现,又可以在危急的时候嫁祸于人。引申为为了保存自己的实力,而利用矛盾,巧妙借用第三力量击破敌人,达到自己的目的。
 
借他人之手除掉对手,自己却不抛头露面,这种间接杀人的计谋,就叫“借刀杀人”。

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