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读书会:《三十六计》混战计第十九计 釜底抽薪 by goodreader

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读书会:《三十六计》混战计第十九计 釜底抽薪
# 第十九计 釜底抽薪
## 原文
不敌其力(1),而消其势(2),兑下乾上之象(3)。

## 按语
水沸者,力也,火之力也,阳中之阳也,锐不可当。薪者,火之魄(4)也,即力之势也,阴中之阴也,近而无害。故力不可当而势犹可消。尉缭子(5)曰:“气实则斗,气夺则走。”而夺气(6)之法,则在攻心。昔吴汉为大司马(7),有寇夜攻汉营,军中惊扰,汉坚卧不动。军中闻汉不动,有倾乃定。乃选精兵反击,大破之。此即不直当其力(8)而扑消其势也。
 
宋薛长儒(9)为汉、湖、滑三州通判(10),驻汉州。州兵数百叛,开营门,谋杀知州(11)、兵马监押(12),烧营以为乱。有来告者,知州、监押皆不敢出。长儒挺身徒步,自坏垣入其营中,以福祸语乱卒曰(13):“汝辈皆有父母妻子,何故作此?叛者立于左,胁从者立于右!”于是,不与谋者数百人立于右,独主谋者十三人突门而出,散于诸村野,寻捕获。时谓非长儒,则一城涂炭矣!此即攻心夺气之用也。或曰:敌与敌对,捣强敌之虚以败其将成之功也。

## 注释
(1)不敌其力:敌,对抗、攻击;力,强力、锋芒。  
(2)消其势:消,削弱、削减;势,气势。  
(3)兑下乾上之象:兑下乾上为《周易》六十四卦中的履卦。其中有“柔履刚也”的说法,指以柔克刚。  
(4)魄:古代指人体中依附于形体而显现的精神,以区别于可以离开形体而存在的魂。一说,魄指有精神的形体。火之魄,火赖以发生的物质。  
(5)尉缭子:战国时期的大兵法家。  
(6)夺气:削弱、瓦解敌方的气势和意志。  
(7)昔吴汉为大司马:吴汉,东汉被宛县(今河南南阳)人,字子颜。大司马,古官名,负责掌管全国军事、汉时位列三公(司徒、司空、司马)。新莽末年吴汉逃命到渔阳(今北京密云西南),以贩马为业。后投降刘秀,做了偏将军,四处征战,帮助刘秀消灭了王朗等割据势力,并镇压铜马等部农民军。后任大司马,封广平侯。  
(8)不直当其力:避开对方的锋芒。  
(9)薛长儒1000—1061:宋代绛州(今山西新绛)人,字符卿。历任州通判、知州。

(10)通判:官名。宋初开始,于州、府设置通判,其地位略低于州、府长官,但握有连署州府公事和监察官吏的实权,号称“监州”。  
(11)知州:官名。宋代掌管全州政事的文官。  
(12)兵马监押:宋代掌握全州军事的武官。  
(13)以福祸语乱卒:向参与叛乱的士卒说明利害。

## 原文翻译
不要和敌方硬拼,而要设法削弱其气势,这就是《周易履》卦山说的以柔克刚的办法。

## 按语翻译
水的沸腾,是靠一种力量,即火力。猛火烧沸水,其锐气自然是不可阻挡的。干柴,是产生火力的燃料,猛烈的火势就是靠着它形成的。但干柴本身是温和而柔弱的东西,人们靠近它是不会受到伤害的。所以,凶猛的火力虽然难以阻挡,但要削弱火势还是有办法的。尉缭子说:“士兵勇气十足,就敢于战斗;勇气丧失,就会溃逃。”瓦解敌军气势的办法,就是要在精神上征服对方。东汉初年,吴汉任大司马时,有敌寇乘夜袭击汉军的军营。军营中因此一片惊慌混乱,而吴汉却安然在床上静卧不动。将士们听说吴汉这般冷静沉着,情绪顿时稳定,不一会儿,军营中也就安定下来了。这时,吴汉便起床挑选了一支精兵,乘夜出击,从而大败了敌军。这里,吴汉采用的就是不与敌人正面交锋,而是先设法削减对方气势的策略。
 
北宋时,薛长儒做汉州、湖州、滑州三洲通判时,驻守在汉州,当时有数百名驻守州城的士兵发生叛变。他们打开营门,企图谋杀知州和兵马监押。有人前来报告,知州和监押都不敢出面。长儒挺身而出,步行到军营前,从破损了的营墙翻身入营,对参与叛乱的士卒晓以利害,说:“你们皆有父母妻儿,为什么做出这样的事情?凡策划叛乱的都站到左边来,凡被迫跟随的站到右边来。”于是,没有参与策划的数百名士兵都站到了右边,只有策划叛乱的十三个头头冲出营门逃走,分散躲进野外的村庄里,不久都被抓获。当时人们说:如果不是薛长儒挺身而出,全城就要遭殃了。这里就是用的攻心夺气的计谋。有人说:当两军对垒时,突然攻击强大敌军的弱点,破坏它即将取得的胜利,这也是“釜底抽薪”之计的运用。

## 计名解析
釜底抽薪:釜,古代的一种锅;薪,柴火。用在锅底下抽去柴火的办法,来止住锅内的沸水。比喻从根本上解决问题。也指暗中进行破坏。在军事上一般指不靠同敌人直接交战,而是切断敌人供给来源,破坏敌人所依靠的有利条件,或瓦解敌人士气的办法来战胜敌人。
 
釜底抽薪这个比喻很浅显,道理却说得很清楚。此计用在军事上是指对强敌不用正面作战取胜,而应采用避其锋芒,削减其气势,再乘机取胜的谋略。用在政治上,就是要除掉对手赖以发展壮大的经济力或在政治方面的优势。用在其他场合也是同样的道理。想用好此计关键是要找准对手的弱点,判断准确,出击果断,攻击对手弱点,对手自然会不战自乱。

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