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读书会:《三十六计》混战计第二十计 浑水摸鱼 by goodreader

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读书会:《三十六计》混战计第二十计 浑水摸鱼
# 第二十计 浑水摸鱼
## 原文
乘其阴乱(1),利其弱而无主。随,以向晦入宴息(2)。

## 按语
动荡之际,数力冲撞,弱者依违(3)无主,敌蔽而不察,我随而取之。

《六韬》(4)曰:“三军数惊,士卒不齐,相恐以敌强(5),相语以不利;耳目相属(6),妖言不止,众口相惑,不畏法令,不重其将:此弱征也。”是鱼(7),混战之际,择此而取之。

如刘备之得荆州、取西川,皆此计也。

## 注释
(1)乘其阴乱:阴,内部。全句意为:乘敌人内部发生混乱。  
(2)随,以向晦入宴息:语出《周易随》卦,“泽中有雷,随。君子以向晦入宴息。”意思是说,人要顺应天时,按时作息,晚上就应该进屋休息。用于本计,是说打仗时要善于抓住敌方的可乘之隙,随机行事,乱中取利。  
(3)依违:依,依靠、拥护;违,违背、反对。  
(4)《六韬》:古代兵书名。相传为周代吕尚所着。吕尚,字子牙,东海姜姓,先封于吕,从其姓,俗称姜太公,辅周灭纣。世传其遗有兵书《六韬》六卷。《六韬》始辑录于《随书经籍志》,宋代列为《武经七书》之一,同《三略》和《孙吴兵法》并称。引文见《六韬兵征》。  
(5)相恐以敌强:相恐,互相传播一些令人惊恐的消息;以敌强,用一些形容敌人如何如何强大之类的话。  
(6)耳目相属:交头接耳,你看着我,我看着你。  
(7)鱼:猎取对象,比喻敌人。

## 原文翻译
乘着敌方内部发生混乱,利用他力量虚弱且群龙无首的机会,让他顺从于我,就像《周易随》卦中说的人到夜晚必须入室休息一样,这样我方就可以乱中取胜。

## 按语翻译
动乱不定的局面,一般是由几种相冲突的力量造成的。势力弱小的顺从谁或反对谁都没有拿定主意,敌方又被蒙蔽而没有察觉,我方应当立即随手把这股弱小力量夺取过来。

兵书《六韬兵征》中写道:“军队多次惊慌,军心不一,又因对敌人估计过强而产生恐惧心理:互相说着泄气的话;大家互相咬耳朵,使眼色;谣言纷纷,听信假话;不怕法令,不尊重将帅。这些都是怯弱的征象啊。”这样的“鱼”,在混战的时候,应该乘机捕捉它。

例如,刘备得荆州,取西川,用的都是这一计策。

## 计名解析
浑水摸鱼:浑浊的;摸,探取、捞取。把水搅浑,使鱼晕头转向之时,乘机把鱼捉来。比喻趁混乱时机捞取好处。

在军事上指利用敌人之间互相混乱攻战的时机,乘机将尚犹豫不决的弱小敌人获取过来。很多时候,这个可乘之机不能只靠等待,还应该主动去创造。有时候可以主动去把水搅浑,让情况变得复杂起来,之后就能见机行事,浑水摸鱼了。

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