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读书会:《三十六计》混战计第二十一计 金蝉脱壳 by goodreader

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· @goodreader ·
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读书会:《三十六计》混战计第二十一计 金蝉脱壳
# 第二十一计 金蝉脱壳
## 原文
存其形,完其势(1);友不疑,敌不动。巽而止,蛊(2)。

## 按语
共友(3)击敌,坐观其势。倘另有一敌,则须去而存势(4)。则金蝉脱壳者,非徒(5)走也,盖为分身之法也。故大军转动,而旌旗金鼓,俨然(6)原阵,使敌不敢动,友不生疑。待已摧他敌而返,而友敌始知,或犹且不知。然则金蝉脱壳者,在对敌之际,而抽精锐以袭别阵也。

如诸葛亮(7)卒于军,司马懿(8)追焉。姜维令仪反旗鸣鼓(9),若向(10)懿者。懿退,于是仪结营(11)而去。檀道济(12)被围,乃命军士悉甲(13),身白服(14)乘舆徐出外围(15)。魏惧有伏,不敢逼,乃归。

## 注释
(1)存其形,完其势:保存阵地已有的战斗阵容,完备继续战斗的各种态势。  
(2)巽而止,蛊:语出《周易蛊》。蛊卦为巽下艮上。艮为山、为刚,为阳卦;巽为风、为柔,为阴卦。故“蛊”的卦象是“刚上柔下”,意即高山沉静,风行于山下,事可顺当。又,艮在上,为静;巽为下,为谦逊,故又是“谦虚沉静”、“弘大通泰”是天下大治之象。此计引本卦彖辞:“巽而止,蛊。”其意是暗中谨慎地实行主力转移,稳住敌人;乘敌不惊疑之际,脱离险境。“蛊”有顺的意思。  
(3)共友:与友军联合。  
(4)存势:保存阵势。  
(5)徒:仅仅、只是。  
(6)俨然:很相像。  
(7)诸葛亮(公元(18)1—(23)4年):三国时杰出政治家、军事家。字孔明,徐州琅玡阳都(今山东沂南)人。初为刘备军师;刘备称帝后任丞相,总理军政;刘备死后,辅佐后主,封武乡侯。此处所引诸葛亮死后退兵之事,见前文“【计名源出】”。  
(8)司马懿(公元(17)9—(25)1年):三国时军事家、魏国名将。字仲达,河内郡温县人(属今河南省焦作市温县)。曾为曹操军司马;曹丕称帝后任抚军大将军。  
(9)姜维令仪反旗鸣鼓:姜维(公元(20)2—(26)4年),三国时天水(今甘肃甘谷)人。蜀汉诸葛亮死后,为军权继承人,多次率兵伐中原,劳而无功。魏军攻蜀,他坚守剑阁。后来后主刘禅降魏,才被迫向钟会投降。后企图恢复蜀汉,事败被杀。仪,杨仪,字威公,襄阳人(今湖北襄樊)。东汉末年为荆州刺史主簿,后投关羽。刘备进位汉中王,拔擢杨仪为尚书。后主时,随诸葛亮出师北伐,任杨仪为长史、绥军将军。诸葛亮死后,因言行不检,被贬自杀。  
(10)若向:好像是指向。若,如、像是。  
(11)结营:安营扎寨;此处意为保持着完整的营寨,亦即保持了军队的完整。  
(12)檀道济:南北朝时期宋国名将。高平金乡(今山东金乡)人。初随刘裕从军,历任扬威将军、宁朔将军、冠军将军、镇南大将军,战功显赫。后因朝廷畏其兵权太重,被宋文帝刘义隆指使彭城王刘义康将他杀了。  
(13)悉甲:全部披上盔甲。  
(14)身白服:身,这里是指身上穿着;白服,便服。  
(15)徐出外围:徐,从容地;外围,包围圈之外。

## 原文翻译
保存阵地原形,保持原有的声势,使友军不怀疑,敌人也不敢贸然进犯,我方却暗中转移主力,打击别处的敌人。这就是《周易蛊》卦中“巽而止,蛊”所说的道理。

## 按语翻译
同友军联合对敌作战,要仔细察明敌、我、友三方面的态势。如果另外发现敌人,必须保持原来的阵势而分兵去迎击。“金蝉脱壳”并不是一走了事,它是一种分身的法术。因此,当我方大军转移后,依然要旗帜招展,锣鼓声喧,很逼真地保持原来的阵势,这就可以使敌人不敢妄动,友军也不致生疑。等到我已摧毁别处的敌人返回来,友军和敌人才发觉,或者还没有发觉。“金蝉脱壳”就是在对敌作战时,暗中抽走精锐部队去袭击别处的敌人的计谋。

比如:诸葛亮第六次出祁山伐魏时死于军中,魏军大都督司马懿领兵追袭。姜维命令杨仪指挥部队擂鼓佯攻,其矛头好像是指向司马懿的魏军。司马懿见后便引军退走了。于是杨仪得以完军而归去。又如南北朝时,宋将檀道济被北魏军队围困。檀道济命令军士全戴盔披甲,而自己则身着便装、坐着车子,领军从容地走出敌军包围圈。北魏的军队害怕宋军有埋伏,因而不敢逼近,于是檀道济得以安全归去。

## 计名解析
金蝉脱壳:金蝉,昆虫名,即黄色的知了。蝉变为成虫时,要脱去幼虫的壳。比喻只留下表面现象,实际已脱身逃走,使对方不能立即发觉。军事上指用计脱身,暗中转移力量,完成突袭别处敌军的谋略。
 
运用此计一定要选好时机,“脱壳”不宜过早,也不宜过迟。谋成于密,败于泄。金蝉脱壳的整个过程都要在不知不觉中进行,绝不能露出半点破绽。

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# 阅读者 GoodReader
做一个优秀的读者,不因个人偏好而错过有意思的原创观点.
To be an excellent reader, don't miss interesting original ideas because of personal preference!

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