Warning: Steem witnesses executed a hard fork on 2020-05-20, seizing 23.6M STEEM from 65 accounts. The funds were transferred to an account named @community321, the ownership (and intentions) of which have not been revealed. The witnesses claim to have been targeting accounts which defended against a hostile takeover in early March, but at least 2 accounts on the list have been inactive for over 4 years.

Coverage:
- Decrypt.io: Steem network to seize $5 million from its own users
- SteemPeak.com: Official Announcement by @softfork22888
- GitHub.com: view steemd HF23 changes

What you can do:
- Send exchanges a notice of the pending class action lawsuit.
- Switch to HIVE, the community-led fork. Visit Hive.blog and Hiveblocks.com.

盐铁会议 by goodreader

View this thread on steempeak.com
· @goodreader ·
$33.59
盐铁会议
  
匈奴问题一直是中原国家非常头疼的难题,汉朝自开国以来就和匈奴作战无数,汉武帝时期,两方对抗更是激烈。连年出征已经让汉朝的国库日渐空虚,国家经济入不敷出。汉武帝迫切想增加国家收入,可是又不能向老百姓施压,愁得不知该怎么办才好。
 
这个时候,桑弘羊向武帝请命,说他有办法帮国家渡过难关,还能支付军队开支。汉武帝非常高兴,急忙问桑弘羊有什么好办法。
 
桑弘羊十分有经济头脑,他家世代经商,是洛阳城里最富有的人家,因此他小小年纪就耳濡目染,学到了很多生财之道。虽然家中富裕,桑弘羊却没有继承家业,而是选择了当官,十三岁的时候,他被选为侍中进宫,随侍在汉武帝身边。他告诉汉武帝,民间有很多赚钱的生意,比如盐和铁。
 
汉朝开国以来,煮盐和冶铁都掌握在地方富商手里。盐和铁是百姓的日常生活必需品,所以这些商人的生意越做越大,渐渐地垄断了全国的盐铁买卖,也积累了数不清的财富。桑弘羊建议汉武帝把盐铁买卖改为国家专营,这样一来不但能够控制地方富豪的势力,还能让国家的财政收入飞速上涨。汉武帝批准了这一改革,还把桑弘羊提拔了好几级官职,最后,桑弘羊以御史大夫的身份掌握全国经济的发展。
 
汉武帝去世后,汉昭帝即位。武帝临终前嘱托霍光和桑弘羊协助幼主管理朝政。霍光和桑弘羊的思想观念有很大的差异,霍光推崇儒家思想,主张仁政;桑弘羊则推崇法家思想,因而两人在武帝时期就各自立派,水火不容。而此时,桑弘羊的经济改革已经实行了许久,这期间霍光几次提出停止盐铁专卖,推行与民休息、轻徭薄赋的政策,让他和桑弘羊原本就紧张的关系变得更加严峻。
 
两个人争执了很长时间也没能达成共识,霍光干脆请来很多贤良文士,和桑弘羊那一派人召开了一次会议,专门讨论盐铁问题。这就是盐铁会议。
 
在召开会议之前,霍光派出几位大臣走访民间,一方面寻找贤良之士,一方面调查百姓生活水平,希望掌握更多有利的证据来证明盐铁专卖的弊端。
 
公元前81年,从全国挑选出来的贤良文士来到长安,盐铁会议正式开始。贤良文士认为盐铁专卖会导致百姓生活困难,而桑弘羊和丞相田千秋坚决反对废除盐铁专卖,双方由此展开了一场激烈的争论。
 
贤良文士提出,在盐铁专卖的过程中,有些官吏为了中饱私囊,故意抬高价格,或者降低质量,借此敛财,受害最深的一方当然是百姓。有些官商的盐吃起来有苦味,百姓不愿购买,只好顿顿清汤灌水;铁器的价格贵,做成的刀具却连野草都很难割断,农民不得已只好用手把野草扯掉。种种情况表明,盐铁专卖实际上是纵容官府从百姓身上搜刮钱财,应该停止盐铁等其他由国家管制的生产事业,让百姓来接管,才是真正的利国利民。
 
桑弘羊却认为,要想国家收入能够提高,必须牢牢抓住经济,否则王朝会逐渐衰退,外敌入侵时也没有反击的能力。
 
除了讨论盐铁,双方还针对当时的国家形势进行了辩论。首先是匈奴问题,对待匈奴究竟是该求和还是用武力镇压。贤良文士的意见是,求和比打仗要好,战争劳民伤财,不如采取和匈奴和亲的方式来缓解两国之间的关系,用仁义情礼来感化他们。同时还要解除边塞城镇重兵把守的局面,真正做到与民休息。桑弘羊一派不同意这个观点,他们认为匈奴生性蛮横不讲理,和亲只能保证一时,不能完全让匈奴归顺,严厉打击是保证汉朝安危最好的办法。
 
在选择治理国家方式上,两方的意见也不统一。贤良文士提出,汉武帝末期的社会矛盾已经非常突出,必须采取缓和安抚的政策来平息百姓的怨气,以德治国,以仁治国,先礼后兵,这才是英明的做法。桑弘羊一派则坚持主张以法治国,实行严格的刑罚手段,绝不给奸邪之人任何可乘之机。
 
霍光并没有参加盐铁会议,但他无疑是支持贤良文士一派。虽然双方争论激烈,出发点都是为了更好地管理国家,可以这么说,双方在思想上存在差异,但目的都是一样的。
 
盐铁会议结束后,汉昭帝没有全部废除盐铁官营,而是禁止了一部分盐铁专卖,改革的幅度虽然小,对减弱地主和富商势力的影响依然存在,并且对社会矛盾有一定的缓和作用。盐铁会议之后,汉朝的经济慢慢地开始恢复,霍光推崇的儒家思想进一步得到了统治者的信任。
 
粗略看来,盐铁专卖确实会给国家带来很多好处,不但能增加国库收入,还可以打击地方强权势力,加强中央集权,用武力镇压匈奴也不失为一个保证国家安定的好办法,但在汉朝社会矛盾突出的时候,过分坚持这些政策只能让矛盾恶化,甚至有可能引发社会混乱,使得百姓对朝廷失去信心。而贤良文士深知百姓疾苦,了解民间艰辛,所以他们推行的政策大多以缓和社会矛盾为主,对国家的管理有一定的帮助。但是要清楚一点,任何事情都有利有弊,盲目地施行一种政策同样会对国家造成不利的影响。

# 本帖steem首发
[ 盐铁会议 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201015yan)  

# 最近新帖
3. [ 晁错削藩 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201014cuo)  
4. [ 周亚夫治军 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201014zhou)  
1. [ 韩信之死 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201013han)  
1. [ 白登之围 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201013bai)  
4. [ 始皇帝病死沙丘 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201012shi)  
4. [ 张良博浪沙行刺 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201012liang) 
4. [ 白起坑杀降卒 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201011bai)
4. [ 赵括纸上谈兵 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201011zhao) 
4. [ 赵武灵王胡服骑射 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201010wu)  
4. [ 张仪拆散联盟 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201010yi) 
4. [ 邹忌谏齐王 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201009qi)  
4. [ 名医扁鹊 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201009que) 
4. [ 孔子周游列国 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201008kong)  
4. [ 孙武练兵 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201008sun) 
4. [ 晋楚城濮之战 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201007chu)  
4. [ 晋公子重耳流亡异邦 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201007jin) 
4. [ 郑庄公掘地见母 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201006er) 
4. [ 石大义灭亲 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201006yi) 
4. [ 伯夷、叔齐宁死不食周粟 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201005bo)  
4. [ 武王伐纣 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201005wu)  
4. [ 少康中兴 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201004xing)
4. [ 寒浞篡位 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201004wei) 
4. [ 有巢氏构木为巢 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/wqn003)
4. [ 盘古开天辟地 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/wqn001)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》99-勤有功,戏无益。戒之哉,宜勉力。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201002szj98)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》98-人遗子,金满籝。我教子,惟一经。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201002szj98)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》97-扬名声,显父母。光于前,裕于后。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201001szj97)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》96-幼而学,壮而行。上致君,下泽民。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20201001szj96)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》95-蚕吐丝,蜂酿蜜。人不学,不如物。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200930szj95)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》94-犬守夜,鸡司晨。苟不学,曷为人。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200930szj94)  
4. [ 读书会: 《三字经》93-彼虽幼,身已仕。尔幼学,勉而致。有为者,亦若是。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200929szj93)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》92-唐刘晏,方七岁。举神童,作正字。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200929szj92)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》91-彼女子,且聪敏。尔男子,当自警。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200928szj91)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》90-蔡文姬,能辨琴。谢道韫,能咏吟。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200928szj90)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》89-彼颖悟,人称奇。尔幼学,当效之。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200927szj89) 
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》88-莹八岁,能咏诗。泌七岁,能赋棋。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200927szj88)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》87-若梁灏,八十二。对大廷,魁多士。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200926szj87)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》86-彼既老,犹悔迟。尔小生,宜早思。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200926szj86)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》85-苏老泉,二十七。始发愤,读书籍。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200925szj85)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》84-如负薪,如挂角。身虽劳,犹苦卓。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200925szj84)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》83-如囊萤,如映雪。家虽贫,学不辍。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200924szj83)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》82-头悬梁,锥刺股。彼不教,自勤苦。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200924szj82)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》81-披蒲编,削竹简。彼无书,且知勉。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200923szj81) 
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》80-赵中令,读鲁论。彼既仕,学且勤。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200923szj80)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》79-昔仲尼,师项橐。古圣贤,尚勤学。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200922szj79)  
3. [ 读书会: 《三字经》78-口而诵,心而惟。朝于斯,夕于斯。 ](https://steemit.com/@goodreader/20200922szj78) 

# 阅读者 GoodReader
做一个优秀的读者,不因个人偏好而错过有意思的原创观点.
To be an excellent reader, don't miss interesting original ideas because of personal preference!

![0.jpg](https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQvEyHxn8N9wV8pBoPFwNe9eqYM4j7tr434LEsMRZRvJJ/0.jpg)
[图片来源:百度搜索](https://ns-strategy.cdn.bcebos.com/ns-strategy/upload/applvyou_pinjie01/result368724.jpg)
👍  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and 177 others
properties (23)
post_id88,020,087
authorgoodreader
permlink20201015yan
categoryhive-165526
json_metadata{"canonical_url":"https:\/\/hive.blog\/hive-165526\/@goodreader\/20201015yan","community":"hive-165526","app":"beempy\/0.24.10","image":["https:\/\/cdn.steemitimages.com\/DQmQvEyHxn8N9wV8pBoPFwNe9eqYM4j7tr434LEsMRZRvJJ\/0.jpg","https:\/\/ns-strategy.cdn.bcebos.com\/ns-strategy\/upload\/applvyou_pinjie01\/result368724.jpg"],"links":["https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201015yan","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201014cuo","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201014zhou","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201013han","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201013bai","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201012shi","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201012liang","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201011bai","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201011zhao","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201010wu","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201010yi","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201009qi","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201009que","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201008kong","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201008sun","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201007chu","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201007jin","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201006er","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201006yi","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201005bo","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201005wu","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201004xing","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201004wei","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/wqn003","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/wqn001","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201002szj98","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201001szj97","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20201001szj96","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200930szj95","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200930szj94","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200929szj93","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200929szj92","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200928szj91","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200928szj90","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200927szj89","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200927szj88","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200926szj87","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200926szj86","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200925szj85","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200925szj84","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200924szj83","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200924szj82","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200923szj81","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200923szj80","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200922szj79","https:\/\/steemit.com\/@goodreader\/20200922szj78"],"tags":["chinese","hnt","mini","zzan","upfundme","actnearn","spt","lifestyle","steemleo","marlians","dblog","asshole","diamondtoken","neoxian","aaa","palnet","liv","iv","creativecoin","mediaofficials","lassecash","cn"]}
created2020-10-15 15:16:36
last_update2020-10-15 15:16:36
depth0
children2
net_rshares86,917,228,836,867
last_payout1969-12-31 23:59:59
cashout_time2020-10-22 15:16:36
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value33.594 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length5,645
author_reputation527,499,706,370,260
root_title盐铁会议
beneficiaries
0.
accounthnt
weight10,000
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
author_curate_reward""
vote details (241)
@mxqe ·
http://oasis-restauration.fr/fxd/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html
http://oasis-restauration.fr/fxd/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html
http://oasis-restauration.fr/fxd/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html
https://archersdutouch.fr/clg/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html
https://archersdutouch.fr/clg/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html
https://archersdutouch.fr/clg/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html
http://casim78.fr/lala/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html
http://casim78.fr/lala/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html
http://casim78.fr/lala/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html
https://moulin-de-bully.fr/cje2/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html
https://moulin-de-bully.fr/cje2/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html
https://moulin-de-bully.fr/cje2/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html
properties (22)
post_id88,032,829
authormxqe
permlinkqiauug
categoryhive-165526
json_metadata{"links":["http:\/\/oasis-restauration.fr\/fxd\/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html","http:\/\/oasis-restauration.fr\/fxd\/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html","http:\/\/oasis-restauration.fr\/fxd\/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html","https:\/\/archersdutouch.fr\/clg\/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html","https:\/\/archersdutouch.fr\/clg\/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html","https:\/\/archersdutouch.fr\/clg\/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html","http:\/\/casim78.fr\/lala\/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html","http:\/\/casim78.fr\/lala\/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html","http:\/\/casim78.fr\/lala\/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html","https:\/\/moulin-de-bully.fr\/cje2\/videoa-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1.html","https:\/\/moulin-de-bully.fr\/cje2\/Video-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-ing-tv-v-fr-fr-1huq.html","https:\/\/moulin-de-bully.fr\/cje2\/video-regarder-nimes-olympique-p-s-g-en-direct-v-fr-fr-1hfz.html"],"app":"steemit\/0.2"}
created2020-10-16 14:56:42
last_update2020-10-16 14:56:42
depth1
children0
net_rshares0
last_payout1969-12-31 23:59:59
cashout_time2020-10-23 14:56:42
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length1,089
author_reputation0
root_title盐铁会议
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@boomerang ·
This post has received a 52.65 % upvote from @boomerang.
properties (22)
post_id88,048,455
authorboomerang
permlinkre-20201015yan-20201017t151847
categoryhive-165526
json_metadata{}
created2020-10-17 15:18:48
last_update2020-10-17 15:18:48
depth1
children0
net_rshares0
last_payout1969-12-31 23:59:59
cashout_time2020-10-24 15:18:48
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length56
author_reputation1,352,418,525,462
root_title盐铁会议
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000