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屈原投江殉国 by zhangjin

View this thread on steempeak.com
· @zhangjin ·
$3.09
屈原投江殉国
  
 
战国时候,其他六个诸侯国常受秦国的攻击,于是楚国左徒屈原去另外五国游说,希望六国可以联合起来,共同对抗秦国。公元前317年,屈原的游说起到了作用,齐、燕、赵、韩、魏五国的国君来到楚国国都郢都,以楚怀王为中心结成了六国联盟。有了联盟的力量做后盾,楚国的国力更加强盛,秦国再也不敢肆无忌惮地前来冒犯了。为此,楚王对屈原十分倚重,内政外交上的许多问题都放手给他。
 
楚王对屈原的重用引起了楚公子子兰等贵族的嫉恨,他们于是常到楚王身边献谗言,污蔑屈原。楚王听信了他们的话,渐渐削弱了屈原的权利,不再对他这么信任了。
 
楚国拉拢其他五国结盟,这件事成了秦国的心腹大患,秦国一直希望找一个突破口,毁掉六国联盟。屈原和楚王失和,给了秦国机会,秦王忙找相国张仪商议。张仪认为,六国里面,齐国和楚国最强大,只要把这两个国家的阵营拆开,那么其他几国就起不了什么作用了。张仪想借楚国内讧的时机,亲自完成这场离间计。
 
秦王很高兴,给了他一批钱财和珠宝用来疏通门路。张仪假装辞去秦国相位,交出相印,来到楚国。他先去游说屈原,劝他放弃和另外五国的联盟,同秦国结盟,屈原不为所动。张仪接着去拜访一直对屈原心存妒意的公子子兰,说:“楚王之所以宠信屈原,就是因为有六国联盟,只要六国联盟不存在了,那么,区区一个屈原又能怎么样呢?”这些话正中子兰的下怀,两个人一拍即合。有了子兰的首肯,张仪很快就得到了楚国其他贵族的信任和支持。
 
通过子兰的引荐,张仪见到了楚怀王的宠妃郑袖。张仪投其所好,献上一对价值连城的白璧,郑袖心花怒放,爽快地答应了张仪的要求,促成楚国和秦国结盟。他们认为,只要楚怀王不再相信六国联盟的牵线人屈原,那么联盟就不攻自破了,只要六国联盟破裂,那么楚国就有了和秦国结盟的可能
。但是怎样才能让楚王不再信任屈原呢?他们想出一个办法:子兰带张仪去见楚怀王,张仪劝怀王说,和齐国等弱小国家结盟,不如和强大的秦国结盟,只要楚国愿意联盟,秦国可以把六百里土地送给楚国。楚王信以为真,大喜,郑袖借机说:“听说张仪前段时间找过屈原,屈原想要他的一对白璧,张仪没给,不知道屈原会不会反对呢?”
 
第二天,楚王设宴,商讨秦楚结盟的事,屈原不知有计,果然大力阻止。楚怀王想起郑袖的话,愤怒地斥责他:“难道在你眼里,六百里土地比不上一对白璧吗?”从此再也没有召见过他。屈原眼看着自己心血散尽:失去了联盟做依靠,楚国无异于羊入虎口,离亡国也就不远了。屈原满腔的忧愤无处发泄,于是写了一首长诗《离骚》,想不到这首诗成了子兰他们污蔑他的口实,说他称楚王是个昏君。楚怀王大怒,撤了他的官。屈原从此离开郢都,到了汉北。
 
楚怀王听信谗言,断了和齐国的联盟,让人跟着张仪到秦国,接收他允诺的六百里土地。张仪使计,快到秦都咸阳的时候,假装喝醉酒跌了跤,以腿伤的名义先进了城,对楚国使节避而不见。直到三个月后,张仪得到消息,六国联盟确实解散了,才肯出来和楚使见面,推卸说:“我当时说的,是要把自己的六里封地送给楚国,国家的土地怎么能说送就送出去呢?”使节无奈,只好两手空空地回去了。
 
楚怀王一听,气坏了,立刻派兵攻打秦国。秦国联合齐国,对楚国前后夹击。楚国难以抵挡,汉中地区很快成了秦国的国土。楚怀王这时想起了汉北的屈原,立刻召他回来,出使齐国,修复两国的关系。
 
齐王对楚国的背信弃义格外恼怒,但出于对屈原的敬重,还是答应了撤兵。屈原和齐王的谈判刚结束,秦楚议和的消息就传来,屈原怕其中又有诈,忙赶回国。屈原要回国的消息惊动了公子子兰,他忙让郑袖向楚王进言,说:“屈原对百姓说,士兵阵亡全怪我向大王进言。他们死得太冤,他回来是要替他们报仇的。”怀王第二天就下了指令,让屈原不必进宫,马上赴任三闾大夫。
 
屈原一走,楚国朝廷立刻成了公子子兰的天下。六国联盟不复存在,秦国开始接连不断地进攻楚国,楚国一连被秦国占领了八座城池。公元前299年,楚王收到秦王来信,约他到武关会面,商讨秦楚永世友好的方法。怀王不顾屈原劝阻,执意前往,一到武关,立刻被秦军扣押,送往秦国。
 
消息传到郢都,郑袖立太子熊横为顷襄王,子兰为令尹,把持国政。屈原进言,劝顷襄王修复与其他五国的联盟,壮大实力,救回怀王,但子兰等人坐视不理。怀王当时执意去武关是受他们的蛊惑,他们害怕怀王回来向他们兴师问罪,更何况他们也不敢和强大的秦国对抗。
 
他们把屈原驱逐出郢都,不准他再回来。三年以后,顷襄王忽然接到秦国的通知,称怀王已死。原来怀王到咸阳后,秦王要他割让黔中给秦国,怀王拒绝了,于是被软禁起来。一年以后,趁看守松懈的时候,怀王借机逃走,来到赵国边界。但他屡次破坏六国联盟,引起赵国人的忿恨,不准他进城。怀王只好转而向南,投奔魏国,还没走到,就被追赶的秦兵追上,押回咸阳。怀王一怒之下吐了血,病了一年多,抑郁而死。现在秦国是要把他的尸骨送回楚国。
 
在怀王的灵柩前,屈原嚎啕大哭。他又一次进言顷襄王,联络各国,共同出兵秦国。顷襄王不理睬,他就跪在宫门前,日夜痛哭。郑袖不耐烦了,命令子兰去呵斥他。屈原疾言厉色地责骂他:“是你让大王去秦国的!你还是个楚国人吗?你根本就是个秦国奸细!楚国百姓恨不得吃了你的肉!”
 
子兰回去以后,添油加醋地把这些话讲给郑袖听。郑袖一怒之下,让顷襄王革了屈原的职,流放到江南,永远不许过江。屈原在流放地陵阳住了九年,终日抑郁。公元前278年,秦国将领白起占领郢都的消息传来,屈原明白,楚国要亡了。他来到汨罗江,注视着江水中自己的倒影,感叹道:“举世皆浊我独清,众人皆醉我独醒。”万念俱灰之下,他抱起一块石头,沉入水里,投江而死。


# 本帖 steem 首发  
[ 屈原投江殉国 ](https://steemit.com/@zhangjin/20201010xun)  

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created2020-10-10 15:22:48
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@hnt ·
[本帖中](/@zhangjin/20201010xun)  , @hnt 作为受益人获得奖励 : [1.591 $ + 0.0 STEEM + 10.01 SP = 19.537 STEEM = 3.263 $](https://steemworld.org/block/47805165/virtual/4294967295/45) , 因此 @hnt 保留 5%(0.977 STEEM) 作为费用 , 并且支付本帖作者 18.56 STEEM . 谢谢使用 @hnt 的流动性服务 ! <br> [ 详细说明 ... ](https://steemit.com/@hnt/cn-note-liquify)
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