create account

ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3 by loveforlove

View this thread on steemit.com
· @loveforlove ·
$19.80
ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3
<p>

</p><p>A pleasant greetings to all my readers once again. I want to
say a big thanks to you for all the support and encouragement. Today, I will
continue from where I stopped in my last post on the series of <b>ALLERGIES AND
THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES</b>.</p><p>So, I’ll be raising the curtain with the term
“<b>transplantation</b>” and “<b>grafting</b>”, before going further to discuss on
“<b>antibiotics</b>” and its <b>resistance</b>.</p><p>

</p><h2><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>TRANSPLANTS AND GRAFTS</span></h2><p>

</p><p>Transplantation involves taking cells, tissues or organs
from one individual and placing them into another individual. Since the first
organ transplant operations in the 1950s, patients have received hearts, lungs,
skin, corneas, kidneys and various other organs. The success rate of these
operations has improved steadily.</p><p align="center"><img style="width: 325.5px;" src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1560715566/fzivnc2c3acfeof8nctp.jpg" data-filename="fzivnc2c3acfeof8nctp"><br></p><p>

</p><p align="center"><a href="https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2015/07/23/16/17/surgery-857135_640.jpg" target="_blank">Pixabay</a><br></p><p>The biggest problem facing most transplant recipients is
that of <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">rejection</b>. The cells of
transplanted tissue are covered in antigens that stimulate the specific immune
response of the recipient, notably the cell-mediated response brought about by
T cells. Symptoms of rejection include the degeneration of blood vessels in the
transplanted organ and the destruction of whole cells, followed by their
replacement with ‘scar’ tissue. A patient whose transplant is rejected becomes
seriously ill: he or she loses the function of the organ concerned and the
massive immune response puts an incredible amount of stress on an already
weakened body. </p><p>

</p><p>Rejection can be minimized by tissue typing or by using
drugs to suppress the immune system.</p><p>

</p><h3><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Tissue typing</span></h3><p>

</p><p>Like red blood cells, other body cells also have surface
antigens that are different in different people. Body cells, such as cells in
the kidney or liver, have many antigens that differ, from person to person.
This is why matching the tissue type of the donor and recipient is much more
complex than matching blood groups. In practice, the cells from two people are
never identical, so the aim is to match people who have as few differences as
possible.</p><p>

</p><p></p><p>

</p><h3>Immunosuppression</h3><p>

</p><p>If the recipient of a transplant has a fully functional
immune system, even a closely matched organ will be rejected to some extent. To
counter this, transplant patients are given immunosuppressive drugs. The most
effective is currently <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">cyclosporin</b>.
This chemical, isolated from a fungus, inhibits the action of T cells and so
has a profound effect on cell-mediated immunity. Since the introduction of
cyclosporin in the early 1980s, the success rates of some transplants have
risen to over 90 per cent.</p><p>

</p><p>The problem with immunosuppressive drugs is, of course, that
they reduce the body’s ability to fight off infection. Transplant patients are
more prone to infection from normally harmless microorganisms, particularly viruses.
Although the dose of immunosuppressive drugs can be reduced after a few months
if there is little sign of rejection, transplantees must continue to take them
for life.</p><p>

</p><p></p><p>

</p><h2><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>ANTIBIOTICS AND THE TREATMENT OF
INFECTION</span></h2><p>

</p><p>Throughout human history, millions of people have died from
bacterial infections. Today, we still suffer from such infections but we now
have antibiotics – safe and effective drugs that can be used against the
bacteria that cause disease.</p><p>

</p><p>The first antibiotics developed in the 1930s and 1940s were
chemicals that one microorganism produced to kill another. For example, penicillin,
the first antibiotic to be produced in large enough quantities to be used in
combating bacterial infections, is produced by a type of fungus. Since then,
antibiotics have been extracted from a range of unusual sources including
snowdrop bulbs and toad skin: yet others can be synthesized.</p><p>

</p><p></p><p>

</p><h2><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>PRODUCING PENICILLIN ON A LARGE
SCALE</span></h2><p>

</p><p>Penicillin is produced commercially using a strain of fungus
called <i style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">penicillium chrysogenum</i>. This
is an aerobic organism that needs a high level of oxygen to grow in culture.
For this reason, it is grown commercially in fermenters with a relatively small
volume of 40-200 dm<sup>3</sup>. These are easier to aerate effectively than
much larger fermentation tanks.</p><p align="center"><img style="width: 320px;" src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1560715997/kdrkqvm8juctlql3fyu6.png" data-filename="kdrkqvm8juctlql3fyu6"><br></p><p align="center"><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Penicillin-G_3D.png/800px-Penicillin-G_3D.png" target="_blank"> Chemical structure of Penicillin </a></p><p align="center"><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Penicillin-G_3D.png/800px-Penicillin-G_3D.png" target="_blank">G. Cacycle; public domain</a><br></p><p>In the commercial production of penicillin, the fungus
produces most penicillin at temperatures between 25 and 27 °C. During the first
40 hours or so, the fungus is growing in the culture and increasing in biomass.
Once it has reached a certain concentration in the culture, it starts to
produce large amounts of penicillin, but this continues for only a short time
before the fungus starts to run out of nutrients and begins to die. To get the
most out of each fermentation, new nutrients are added after 40 hours to stimulate
a further increase in biomass. About 20-40 per cent of the culture is removed,
to be processed so the penicillin can be purified, and new culture medium
replaces it. This process, called <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">batch
fill and draw</b>, can be carried out up to ten times before the fermentation
tank needs to be cleaned out completely.</p><p>

</p><h2><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC
RESISTANCE</span></h2><p>

</p><p>Before the 1940s. Having a serious bacterial infection often
meant death. Antibiotics such as penicillin seemed to be wonder drugs at first,
bringing people back from the brink of death. Today we have thousands of
different antibiotics that work in hundreds of different ways. </p><p>

</p><p>Antibiotics are, however, no longer seen as wonder drugs.
Since the 1940s, resistant strains of bacteria have arisen that can case
infections that are very difficult to treat, as they no longer respond to an antibiotic.
One of the best-known antibiotic-resistant bacteria is MRSA – methicillin-resistant
<i style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">Staphylococcus aureus</i>.</p><p>

</p><p></p><p>

</p><p>But how did this happen? Bacteria, like all living organism,
vary. In any population of bacteria, the majority will be killed by an antibiotic.
But it only takes one bacterium to have a gene mutation that enables it to
survive the effect of an antibiotic to create billions of descendant bacteria
all antibiotic resistant. Bacteria also swap antibiotic resistance genes by passing
plasmids containing the genes from one bacterium to another – so the resistance
spreads even more quickly.</p><p><img style="width: 325.5px;" src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1560716559/gwnnmehovxmqz0f5oqem.png" data-filename="gwnnmehovxmqz0f5oqem"><br></p><p>

</p><p></p><p>

</p><p align="center"><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/Antibiotics_action.svg/744px-Antibiotics_action.svg.png" target="_blank">Molecular targets of antibiotics on the bacteria cell.&nbsp;</a></p><p align="center"><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/Antibiotics_action.svg/744px-Antibiotics_action.svg.png" target="_blank">Original: J Raghu Vector: Mrmw - Own work based on: Antibiotics action.png; CC0</a><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><br></span></p><h3><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF ANTIBIOTIC
RESISTANCE?</span></h3><p>

</p><p>A bacterium becomes resistant to an antibiotic when one of
its alleles becomes altered. There are four main mechanisms by which this can
lead to resistance:</p><p>

</p><ul type="disc" style="margin-top:0in">
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">The altered allele occurs
     in the gene that codes for the protein that is a target for the
     antibiotic. If the altered protein is a different shape, it can no longer
     bind to the antibiotic. If there is no binding, the antibiotic can have no
     effect on any biochemical pathways inside the bacterium.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">Some antibiotic-resistant
     bacteria stop the antibiotic reaching its target molecule inside the cell
     either by preventing the antibiotic from entering the cell or by pumping
     it out faster than it can get in. This can happen if the mutation occurs
     in an allele that codes for a membrane receptor or transport protein.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">If the target of an
     antibiotic is an enzyme, bacteria that produce an alternative version of
     the enzyme can bypass the antibiotic. This enzyme still carries out the
     same function as the original in the cell, but the antibiotic does not
     affect it. Having both forms of the same enzyme gives the bacteria a great
     advantage – it can survive equally well whether or not the antibiotic is
     present.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">A mutation might enable
     the bacterium to produce an altered enzyme that is then able to react with
     the antibiotic and disable it. These types of mutation are happening all
     the time in bacteria – normally, they just arise and are lost. However,
     when antibiotics are present in large amount for a long time, this exerts
     a selection pressure that results in lots of antibiotic-resistant
     bacteria.&nbsp;</li></ul><p>

</p><h3><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>HOW MUCH OF A PROBLEM IS
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE?</span></h3><p>

</p><p>Globally, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health
problem. Over-prescribing of antibiotics by doctors is thought to be a major
cause. Many still give antibiotics, particularly to children, for sore throats
and earache, which are mostly caused by viruses. Another factor is that people
don’t finish courses of antibiotics – they stop taking them as soon as they
feel better. This allows bacteria even with partial resistance to re-establish
an infection. Antibiotics used in farming that get into the human food chain
also do not help.</p><p>

</p><p>Hospitals now face serious problems as MRSA and other
antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria can cause terrible infections in
elderly patients and in those in intensive care, who are already weak. The UK
has one of the highest rates of hospital-acquired infection in Europe: MRSA
costs the NHS £1 billion per year and, together, MRSA and antibiotic-resistant <i style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">Clostridium</i> infections killed 16 500
people between 2004 and 2007.</p><p><img style="width: 325.5px;" src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1560716894/aqpdnmtek7ojtusk0yld.jpg" data-filename="aqpdnmtek7ojtusk0yld"><br></p><p>

</p><p></p><p>

</p><p align="center"><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Choosing_Wisely_antibiotics_poster_small_English.pdf/page1-463px-Choosing_Wisely_antibiotics_poster_small_English.pdf.jpg" target="_blank">Choosing Wisely antibiotics poster small English</a></p><p align="center"><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Choosing_Wisely_antibiotics_poster_small_English.pdf/page1-463px-Choosing_Wisely_antibiotics_poster_small_English.pdf.jpg" target="_blank">Wikipedia Commons</a><br></p><h2 align="center"><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>SUMMARY</span></h2><p>

</p><p>After reading all these series of mine on ALLERGIES AND THE
DEFENSE AGAINST DISEASES, we should know and understand the following:</p><p>

</p><ul type="disc" style="margin-top:0in">
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">We are surrounded by
     potential <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">pathogens </b>(disease-causing
     organisms) such as bacteria and viruses which can cause disease if allowed
     to enter and multiply inside the body.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">The body’s defence system
     consists of barriers to keep microorganisms out, and mechanisms to detect
     and destroy those that do enter. Together, these mechanisms are the <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">immune response</b>.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">The immune system is
     capable of non-specific responses and specific responses. Non-specific mechanisms
     (<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">inflammation</b> and <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">phagocytosis</b>) occur in response to
     any invading microorganism. Specific mechanisms allow the body to recognize
     and fight individual types of microorganism. There are two specific
     responses: <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">cell-mediated immunity</b>
     and <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">humoral immunity</b>.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:&#10;     normal">Lymphocytes</b> (types of white cells) are responsible for the
     specific immune response. <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">T cells</b>
     mature in the thymus gland and <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">B
     cells</b> come directly from bone marrow. Both are able to recognize
     foreign antigens that come from pathogens.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">B cells are responsible
     for humoral immunity: they secrete specific proteins called <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">antibodies</b>.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">T cells are responsible
     for cell-mediated immunity and help to control the overall specific
     response. <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">T killer cells</b> attack
     pathogens or infected cells. <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">T
     helper cells</b> activate B cells, telling them to secrete antibodies. <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">T suppressor cells</b> damp down the
     immune response when the infection is over.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:&#10;     normal">Autoimmune diseases</b> occur when the body’s immune system attacks
     its own tissues. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis
     and myasthenia gravis. <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal">Allergies</b>
     occur when the body ‘over-reacts’ to a normally harmless substance such as
     pollen.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">When cells or tissues are
     taken from one individual and given to another, they may be recognized as ‘foreign’
     and destroyed. This process is often called <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:&#10;     normal">graft rejection</b>. To minimize the chance of rejection in blood
     transfusions and organ transplants, it is important to match blood and
     tissue types.</li>
 <li style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:; font-size: 11pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400;">Antibiotics are important
     drugs for treating infections caused by bacteria. In the time since antibiotics
     were first developed and used in the 1940s, bacteria have evolved to
     become resistant to them. Antibiotic-resistant strains of many bacteria are
     becoming common and represent a problem for doctors and researchers.</li>
</ul><p><br></p><ul type="disc" style="margin-top:0in">
</ul><p>

</p><p style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:&#10;normal">&nbsp;</p><p>

</p><h2>Thanks to y’all for reading.<br></h2><p>

</p><h2><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:&#10;SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>REFERENCES</span></h2><p>

</p><p><a href="http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s19125en/s19125en.pdf" target="_blank">http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s19125en/s19125en.pdf</a></p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775060/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775060/</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523159/" target="_blank">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523159/</a></p><p><a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(07)70195-0/fulltext" target="_blank">https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(07)70195-0/fulltext</a></p><p><a href="https://www.nhsinform.scot/tests-and-treatments/medicines-and-medical-aids/types-of-medicine/antibiotics" target="_blank">https://www.nhsinform.scot/tests-and-treatments/medicines-and-medical-aids/types-of-medicine/antibiotics</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.drugs.com/article/antibiotics.html" target="_blank">https://www.drugs.com/article/antibiotics.html</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php" target="_blank">https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php</a><br></p><p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graft_(surgery)" target="_blank">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graft_(surgery)</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.immunology.org/policy-and-public-affairs/briefings-and-position-statements/transplant-immunology" target="_blank">https://www.immunology.org/policy-and-public-affairs/briefings-and-position-statements/transplant-immunology</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.britannica.com/science/transplant-surgery" target="_blank">https://www.britannica.com/science/transplant-surgery</a><br></p><p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillin" target="_blank">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillin</a><br></p><p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic" target="_blank">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic</a><br></p>
👍  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and 602 others
properties (23)
post_id76,494,563
authorloveforlove
permlinkallergies-and-the-de-1560717997
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":["steemstem","science","biology","stemng"],"app":"steemstem"}
created2019-06-16 20:46:39
last_update2019-06-16 20:46:39
depth0
children10
net_rshares35,570,425,352,838
last_payout2019-06-23 20:46:39
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value14.782 SBD
curator_payout_value5.017 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length19,974
author_reputation5,918,644,051,863
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries
0.
accountsteemstem
weight500
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
author_curate_reward""
vote details (666)
@chappertron ·
Very nice again! You are one of the most active biology bloggers at the moment.

High value!

Thanks for your contribution.
properties (22)
post_id76,513,707
authorchappertron
permlinkpt880v
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":["steemstem"],"app":"steemit\/0.1"}
created2019-06-17 04:48:33
last_update2019-06-17 04:48:33
depth1
children2
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-24 04:48:33
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length123
author_reputation23,865,897,868,585
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@loveforlove ·
$0.02
Thanks for the encouragement and support, @chappertron.
👍  
properties (23)
post_id76,543,088
authorloveforlove
permlinkpt90mu
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":["steemstem"],"users":["chappertron"],"app":"steemit\/0.1"}
created2019-06-17 15:06:36
last_update2019-06-17 15:06:36
depth2
children1
net_rshares34,738,696,953
last_payout2019-06-24 15:06:36
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.014 SBD
curator_payout_value0.004 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length55
author_reputation5,918,644,051,863
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
author_curate_reward""
vote details (1)
@chappertron ·
Your welcome.

Keep on Steemin!

Chapper
properties (22)
post_id76,544,091
authorchappertron
permlinkpt91gh
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":["steemstem"],"app":"steemit\/0.1"}
created2019-06-17 15:24:18
last_update2019-06-17 15:24:18
depth3
children0
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-24 15:24:18
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length40
author_reputation23,865,897,868,585
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@steemstem ·
re-loveforlove-allergies-and-the-de-1560717997-20190617t044900054z
<div class='text-justify'> <div class='pull-left'> <center> <br /> <img width='200' src='https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1553698283/weenlqbrqvvczjy6dayw.jpg'> </center>  <br/> <br /> </div>

This post has been voted on by the **SteemSTEM** curation team and voting trail. It is elligible for support from <b><a href='https://www.steemstem.io/#!/@curie'>@curie</a></b> and <b><a href='https://www.steemstem.io/#!/@utopian-io'>@utopian-io</a></b>.<br /> 

If you appreciate the work we are doing, then consider supporting our witness [**stem.witness**](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=stem.witness). Additional witness support to the [**curie witness**](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=curie) and [**utopian-io witness**](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=utopian-io) would be appreciated as well.<br /> 

For additional information please join us on the [**SteemSTEM discord**]( https://discord.gg/BPARaqn) and to get to know the rest of the community!<br />

Thanks for having added <b><a href='https://www.steemstem.io/#!/@steemstem'>@steemstem</a></b> as a beneficiary to your post. This granted you a stronger support from SteemSTEM.<br />

Thanks for having used the <b><a href='https://www.steemstem.io'>steemstem.io</a></b> app. You got a stronger support!</div>
properties (22)
post_id76,513,740
authorsteemstem
permlinkre-loveforlove-allergies-and-the-de-1560717997-20190617t044900054z
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"app":"bloguable-bot"}
created2019-06-17 04:49:03
last_update2019-06-17 04:49:03
depth1
children0
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-24 04:49:03
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length1,396
author_reputation183,372,131,550,888
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@utopian-io ·
#### Hi @loveforlove!

Your post was upvoted by Utopian.io in cooperation with @steemstem - supporting knowledge, innovation and technological advancement on the Steem Blockchain.

#### Contribute to Open Source with utopian.io
Learn how to contribute on <a href='https://join.utopian.io'>our website</a> and join the new open source economy.

**Want to chat? Join the Utopian Community on Discord https://discord.gg/h52nFrV**
properties (22)
post_id76,514,543
authorutopian-io
permlinkre-allergies-and-the-de-1560717997-20190617t050547z
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"app":"beem\/0.20.17"}
created2019-06-17 05:05:48
last_update2019-06-17 05:05:48
depth1
children0
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-24 05:05:48
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length426
author_reputation151,356,124,843,620
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@steemitboard ·
Congratulations @loveforlove! You have completed the following achievement on the Steem blockchain and have been rewarded with new badge(s) :

<table><tr><td><img src="https://steemitimages.com/60x70/http://steemitboard.com/@loveforlove/voted.png?201906170700"></td><td>You received more than 5000 upvotes. Your next target is to reach 6000 upvotes.</td></tr>
</table>

<sub>_You can view [your badges on your Steem Board](https://steemitboard.com/@loveforlove) and compare to others on the [Steem Ranking](https://steemitboard.com/ranking/index.php?name=loveforlove)_</sub>
<sub>_If you no longer want to receive notifications, reply to this comment with the word_ `STOP`</sub>



> You can upvote this notification to help all Steem users. Learn how [here](https://steemit.com/steemitboard/@steemitboard/http-i-cubeupload-com-7ciqeo-png)!
properties (22)
post_id76,538,705
authorsteemitboard
permlinksteemitboard-notify-loveforlove-20190617t134856000z
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"image":["https:\/\/steemitboard.com\/img\/notify.png"]}
created2019-06-17 13:48:57
last_update2019-06-17 13:48:57
depth1
children0
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-24 13:48:57
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length840
author_reputation32,442,260,791,716
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@lemouth ·
40vd53jzp
Is the transplant success rate of 90%  regardless what is transplanted? I would assume some operations may be more complicated than others.

> Another factor is that people don’t finish courses of antibiotics 

This is indeed one of the major factor (<i>I am good then let’s stop my treatment</i>) leading to the next catastrophe… I am afraid antibiotics may soon become useless as such…
properties (22)
post_id76,616,301
authorlemouth
permlink40vd53jzp
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":"steemstem","app":"steemstem"}
created2019-06-18 20:03:03
last_update2019-06-18 20:03:03
depth1
children3
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-25 20:03:03
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length387
author_reputation149,815,088,633,749
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@loveforlove ·
kol2awj38
The success rate of most transplantation is between 80-90%, however it also depends on the type of operation just like you've mentioned. Let's use the transplant of human heart as an example, in the early 1970s, the success rate is below 20%. But in the 80s, after the introduction of cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant, then we started achieving up to 85-90% success rate and despite that, the long term survival is still uncertain. In other transplants like the kidney and the lungs, there's been a notable high success rate. 

>Another factor is that people don’t finish courses of antibiotics

At times with normal drugs, I do fall into the category of "not completing my dose" as soon as I'm starting to feel better but I don't do such with antibiotics since I already know the implications. 

>I am afraid antibiotics may soon become useless as such

For antibiotics to become obsolete and useless, well, maybe yes and maybe no. For now, though, they are still useful. 

Thanks for coming by, @lemouth. I do appreciate your comments. 
properties (22)
post_id76,636,877
authorloveforlove
permlinkkol2awj38
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":"steemstem","app":"steemstem"}
created2019-06-19 03:46:24
last_update2019-06-19 03:46:24
depth2
children2
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-26 03:46:24
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length1,040
author_reputation5,918,644,051,863
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
@lemouth ·
y9lm8gpip
Thanks for the detailed answer!
properties (22)
post_id76,903,921
authorlemouth
permlinky9lm8gpip
categorysteemstem
json_metadata{"tags":"steemstem","app":"steemstem"}
created2019-06-23 19:42:00
last_update2019-06-23 19:42:00
depth3
children1
net_rshares0
last_payout2019-06-30 19:42:00
cashout_time1969-12-31 23:59:59
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
pending_payout_value0.000 SBD
promoted0.000 SBD
body_length31
author_reputation149,815,088,633,749
root_title"ALLERGIES AND THE DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES #3"
beneficiaries[]
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000