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HOW GENES ARE INHERITED: Cystic fibrosis, Dihybrid Inheritance and when Mendel's laws don't apply. by loveforlove

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HOW GENES ARE INHERITED: Cystic fibrosis, Dihybrid Inheritance and when Mendel's laws don't apply.
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Cystic fibrosis: an example of monohybrid inheritance.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 1rem;">The disease is caused by the
mutation of a single allele. A normal allele (</span><b style="font-size: 1rem;">C</b><span style="font-size: 1rem;">) makes a membrane
protein essential for the proper functioning of certain epithelial cells. The mutated
allele (c) does not code for a functional protein. Most people have two healthy
alleles: their genotype is CC. In the early year 2000, around 1 person in 25
caries a faulty allele in the UK population. These carriers (Cc) are perfectly
healthy because they also possess a normal allele, which makes the working
protein.</span><a href="https://www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/what-is-cystic-fibrosis/faqs" target="_blank"><sup>source</sup></a></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><img src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1574849464/pqn1lqtdgqv7wcynlpf7.jpg" data-filename="pqn1lqtdgqv7wcynlpf7" style="width: 527.5px;"><span style="font-size: 1rem;"><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ClubbingCF.JPG" target="_blank"><sup>"Clubbing" of the fingers is a classic feature of Cystic Fibrosis. Jerry Nick, M.D, CC BY-SA 3.0</sup></a><span style="font-size: 1rem;"><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">However, in 1 couple in 625 (1 in 25 x 1 in
25) both partners are carriers. There is a one in four chance that any child
they have could inherit both faulty alleles and therefore be a cystic fibrosis
sufferer. As 1 cystic fibrosis child in 4 is born to 1 Couple in 625, approximately
1 child in every 2500 has this condition.</span><a href="https://www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/what-is-cystic-fibrosis/faqs" target="_blank"><sup>source</sup></a><span lang=""><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2><span lang="">DIHYBRID INHERITANCE: HOW TWO GENES ARE PASSED
ON</span></h2><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">What happens when a tall, purple-flowered pea
plant is crossed with a dwarf, white-flowered individual? Do you always get tall
plants with purple flowers, or can the features re-combine, producing tall,
white-flowered plants, and dwarf, purple-flowered ones? The simple answer is
yes. You can get these recombinants, thanks to the process of meiosis.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">The inheritance of two separate genes is
called dihybrid inheritance. If, as is usual, the two genes are on separate
chromosomes, Mendel’s second law applies: each of a pair of contrasted
characteristics can be combined with each of another pair. So, an organism with
a genotype of <b>AaBb</b> can produce gametes of <b>AB</b> <b>Ab</b>, <b>aB</b>
or <b>ab</b>. In other words, one allele from each pair passes into the gamete,
and all four combinations are possible. This is due to independent assortment
during meiosis.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">For an example, let’s return to pea plants. In
addition to tall and dwarf. We can consider a gene for seed texture.&nbsp; The allele <b>R</b> for round seeds is
dominant to r, the allele for wrinkled seeds.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">In the cross between a pure breeding, tall
round-seeded plant (<b>TTRR</b>), and a pure breeding dwarf, wrinkled-seeded
plant (<b>ttrr</b>). One allele from each pair is passed into the gametes. All
of the gametes from the tall round-seeded plant are <b>TR</b> and all those from
the dwarf, wrinkled-seeded plant are <b>tr</b>. All of the F<sub>1</sub>
generation will have the genotype <b>TtRr</b> and are tall with round seeds.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">When we cross two <b>TtRr</b> individuals.
Things get more complex! Each plant produces four different gametes.
Fertilization is random, producing 16 different combinations in the F<sub>2</sub>
generation. To organize our thoughts we can use a <b>Punnett</b> <b>square</b>.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><img src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1574850004/ynym17qa6jdrrw6eueyb.png" data-filename="ynym17qa6jdrrw6eueyb" style="width: 527.5px;"><span lang=""><o:p><br></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dihybrid_Cross_Tree_Method.png" target="_blank"><sup>RrYy x RrYy Dihybrid Cross Tree Method using the Punnett square.  Tim DeJulio, Public Domain</sup></a><span lang=""><o:p><br></o:p></span></p><h3><span lang="">Dihybrid inheritance questions in examinations<o:p></o:p></span></h3><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Many examination questions require the
candidate to work out the ratios of offspring resulting from a particular cross.
If you have not practised these questions they can be very time consuming, leading
to stress and silly mistakes.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">The example given above (<b>TtRr</b> </span><b>×</b><span lang=""> <b>TtRr</b>) is the most complex dihybrid situation you can get. This
is because both male and female are heterozygous for both alleles, and so produce
4 different gametes each, resulting in 16 different combinations. All other
genotypes will produce fewer combinations. If you practise these combinations
you can learn to work out the gametes and resulting ratios in your head without
resorting to Punnett squares and counting the results.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Consider the cross <b>TtRr</b> </span><b>×</b><span lang=""> <b>TtRr</b>. The first individual produces the gametes <b>TR</b> and <b>tR</b>
in equal amounts. The second one produces <b>Tr</b> and <b>tr</b> in equal
amounts. So, there are four possible combinations: the same number as in a
monohybrid cross.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">You should see that the offspring will be one
quarter <b>TTRr</b>. Two quarters <b>TtRr</b> and one quarter <b>ttRr</b>, giving
three tall plants with round seeds to one dwarf plant with round seeds. You
would not get any dwarf plants with wrinkled seeds. Some exam questions give
the ratios of offspring phenotypes and ask you to work backwards to the
original genotypes. If you do not get the expected ratios, consider linkage as
an explanation below.<o:p></o:p></span></p><h2><span lang="">WHEN MENDEL’S LAWS DON’T APPLY: LINKAGE AND
CROSSING OVER</span></h2><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">So far, we have considered the inheritance of
genes on different chromosomes that could be separated at meiosis. We say that
genes that are on the same chromosome are linked. Such genes cannot obey
Mendel’s laws because they do not undergo independent assortment. They are
inherited together unless separated by crossing over during prophase 1 of meiosis.
In humans, there are over 30 000 genes present on jiust 23 pairs of
chromosomes. So, any single gene is linked with a few thousand others because
they are all on the same chromosome.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">So, to illustrate linkage, let’s consider the
sweet pea plant (<i>Lathyrus</i> <i>odoratus</i> – a different species from the
edible pea I have been talking about). In this species, the allele for purple flowers
is dominant to red flowers, and the allele for elongated pollen grains is
dominant to round pollen. If pure breeding plants with purple flowers and
elongated pollen grains are bred with plants with red flowers and round pollen
grains, the F<sub>1</sub> generation all have purple flowers and elongated
pollen.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">When the F<sub>2</sub> are <b>selfed</b> (bred
together) you would expect a 9:3:3:1 ratio, but this does not happen. The F<sub>2</sub>
generation are mainly like the parents (purple and elongated or red and round)
but there are a few recombinants (red and elongated or purple and round). This
is because the genes for flower colour and pollen shape are linked (present on
the same chromosome) and so are inherited together. Any recombinants we get
must therefore be due to crossing over.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Consider the set of results shown in <b>the table
below</b>. The total number of offspring is 720, of which 59 (31 + 28) are recombinants.
Eight per cent of the offspring result from crossing over and so, by
convention, we can say that the <b>loci</b> for flower colour and pollen shape
are 8 units apart on the chromosome. If the percentage of recombinants were
higher, we would know that the loci were further apart on the chromosome. The
term <b>locus (plural, loci) </b>is used to describe the position of a gene on
a chromosome.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang=""><b>AN EXAMPLE OF PHENOTYPIC RATIO THAT INDICATES
LINKAGE</b></span></p><table class="table table-bordered"><tbody><tr><td>Phenotype<br></td><td>Approx. Expected numbers if no linkage (9:3:3:1)<br></td><td>Observed numbers in F<sub style="font-size: 10.5px;">2</sub>&nbsp;generation<br></td></tr><tr><td>Purple, elongated<br></td><td>405<br></td><td>336</td></tr><tr><td>Purple, rounded<br></td><td>135</td><td>31</td></tr><tr><td>Red, elongated<br></td><td>135</td><td>28</td></tr><tr><td>Red, rounded<br></td><td>45</td><td>325</td></tr><tr><td>Total</td><td>720</td><td>720</td></tr></tbody></table><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 1rem;">When genes are not linked, we expect them to
be separated 50 per cent of the time because there is a 50 per cent chance that
alleles on separate chromosomes will be inherited together. When looking for
linkage, geneticists look for a frequency of recombinants significantly less than
50 per cent.</span><br></p><h2><span lang="">CHROMOSOME MAPS<o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">The frequency with which linked genes are
separated by crossover can tell us a lot about the relative positions, or loci,
of these genes on the chromosome. Two alleles that are close together are
rarely separated by crossing over, while those located on opposite ends of the
chromosome are separated almost every time. Analysis of crossover frequency can
be used to work out the relative positions of alleles and so make chromosome
maps.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><img src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1574850839/ekffd9sinq4i5wltd4in.jpg" data-filename="ekffd9sinq4i5wltd4in" style="width: 527.5px;"><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><span lang=""><sup>An image drawn by me</sup></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Genes Y and Z have a crossover frequency of 10
per cent and so are 10 units apart. A third cross between Y and X determines
the relative positions of X, Y and Z. If the order of genes is XYZ (as shown),
the crossover frequency between X and Y is 13 per cent. If the order is XZY,
the crossosver frequency is 33 per cent.<o:p></o:p></span></p><h2><span lang="">SEX DETERMINATION<o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">What decides whether a baby will be a boy or a
girl?<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">In humans, sex determination depends on the
inheritance of special sex chromosomes. Every human cell contains 23 pairs of
chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Females have
two large X chromosomes and so we say they are the <b>homogametic</b> sex. Males
have one X chromosome and one smaller Y chromosome, and are therefore the <b>heterogametic</b>
sex.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">In the female, all eggs receive an X
chromosome during meiosis. However, meiosis in the male produces sperm, half of
which receive a chromosome and half an X. So as the sperm swim for the female’s
egg it’s a real race: if a Y sperm fertilizes the female’s egg, the offspring
is male. If an X sperm wins, the baby will be a female.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><img src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1574850249/fekkrbjsiwsbfnzmx4wa.jpg" data-filename="fekkrbjsiwsbfnzmx4wa" style="width: 519px;"><span lang=""><o:p><br></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mice_X_Y_chromosomes.jpg" target="_blank"><sup>X-chromosomes (red) and Y-chromosomes (green) in embryonic stem cells of male (X/Y) and female (X/X) mice. Janice Y Ahn, Jeannie T Lee - Janice Y Ahn, Jeannie T Lee, CC BY 2.0</sup></a><span lang=""><o:p><br></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">In humans, about 114 boys are conceived for
every 100 girls. We do not really understand the reason for this. Interestingly,
however, more male embryos die and so at birth the proportions are down to 106
to 100. By puberty the numbers are equal and in old age the females outnumber
males by two to one.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">In the 1990s, a group of genetic researchers
demonstrated that the Y chromosome carries just 60 functional genes, including
a male-determining gene called <b>SRY</b>. All embryos are female unless the
active SRY imposes maleness upon it. When a male embryo and a female embryo
share the same blood supply, it is possible that the SRY can produce hormones
that can force an XX embryo to develop as a male. This is an extremely rare
situation in humans but it is common in cattle.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is
condition that can cause a genetically male child to develop outwardly as a
female. The receptor proteins for the male hormones (androgens) don’t work
properly, so the embryo fails to read the signals that should turn it into a
male. This syndrome may go undetected until the teens, when puberty fails to
happen. Genetic analysis will reveal that the ‘girl’ is in fact a male.
Although she will look and act like a girl, she will not menstruate and will be
unable to have children.<o:p></o:p></span></p><h2><span lang="">SEX-LINKED INHERITANCE<o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Genes carried on the sex chromosomes are said
to be sex-linked. Human females have two X chromosomes, which, like the
autosomes, carry two alleles of every gene. Females therefore have two sets of sex-linked
alleles. In males, however, the Y chromosome is smaller and cannot mirror all of
the genes on the X chromosome, so males have only one set of most sex-linked
alleles. This is why males suffer from the effects of X-linked genetic diseases
more often than females. There are no known Y-linked diseases or conditions,
probably because the Y chromosome carries so few genes.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">A classic example of a sex-linked trait
transmitted by the X chromosome is <b>haemophilia</b>. People suffering from
this disease do not make factor VIII, an essential component in the complex
chain reaction of blood clotting. In addition to the problems caused if they
injure themselves, haemophiliacs suffer from internal bleeding as a result of
normal activity. Bleeding at the joints during even light exercise is a
particular problem. However, haemophiliacs can usually live a full and active
life by having regular injections of Factor VIII.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Haemophilia is caused by a sex-linked
recessive allele. Females have a pair of alleles but males possess only one.
So, if a male inherits the haemophilia allele, he has the disease since he
cannot possess another healthy allele to mask its effect.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Using the following notation:<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">X<sup>h</sup> = the haemophilia allele on the
X chromosome<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">X<sup>H</sup> = the healthy allele on the X chromosome<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">Y = the Y chromosome which does not carry either
allele<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">We can see that the possible genotypes are:<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">X<sup>H</sup>X<sup>H</sup> = healthy female<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">X<sup>H</sup>X<sup>h</sup> = healthy, carrier
female<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">X<sup>H</sup>Y = healthy male<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">X<sup>h</sup>Y = haemophiliac male<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">The inheritance of haemophilia can be studied using
a <b>pedigree</b> <b>diagram</b>. The word pedigree means ‘of known ancestry’
and applies as much to humans as it does to domestic animals. </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><img src="https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1574850543/bp22osylydsgonoc8xv9.png" data-filename="bp22osylydsgonoc8xv9" style="width: 512px;"><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; "><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wiki_Drawing_-_Y-Linked_(1).svg" target="_blank"><sup>In a Y-linked disorder, only males can be affected. If the father is affected all sons will be affected. It also does not skip a generation.  Madibc68, CC BY-SA 4.0</sup></a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="">The pedigree of the
Royal Family can be traced back to 1066 and shows that Queen Victoria was a carrier
of the haemophilia allele and passed it on to four of her nine children. Other sex-linked traits in humans include Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(DMD)&nbsp;and red-green colour blindness. A person with
red-green colour blindness cannot distinguish between red, green, orange, and
yellow. On this Ishihara test charts, a person with normal vision would see
numbers but a person with red-green colour blindness would see only a random
pattern of dots. This condition is caused by a defective allele that codes for
the one of the three groups of light-sensitive cone cells in the retina. Eight
per cent of males but only 0.4 per cent of females suffer from colour blindness.<o:p></o:p></span></p><h3><span lang="">Thanks for reading.</span></h3><h2><span lang="">REFERENCES<o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystic_fibrosis" target="_blank">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystic_fibrosis</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystic-fibrosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353700" target="_blank">https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystic-fibrosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353700</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/147960.php" target="_blank">https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/147960.php</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gregor-mendel-and-the-principles-of-inheritance-593" target="_blank">http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gregor-mendel-and-the-principles-of-inheritance-593</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/inheritance-of-traits-by-offspring-follows-predictable-6524925" target="_blank">http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/inheritance-of-traits-by-offspring-follows-predictable-6524925</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.studocu.com/en/document/florida-international-university/genetics/past-exams/samplepractice-exam-summer-2018-questions-and-answers/2284592/view" target="_blank">https://www.studocu.com/en/document/florida-international-university/genetics/past-exams/samplepractice-exam-summer-2018-questions-and-answers/2284592/view</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://study.com/academy/practice/quiz-worksheet-characteristics-of-a-dihybrid-cross.html" target="_blank">https://study.com/academy/practice/quiz-worksheet-characteristics-of-a-dihybrid-cross.html</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.sanfoundry.com/cytogenetics-questions-answers-dihybrid-cross/" target="_blank">https://www.sanfoundry.com/cytogenetics-questions-answers-dihybrid-cross/</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.slideshare.net/HiwrHastear/genetic-linkage-and-crossing-over" target="_blank">https://www.slideshare.net/HiwrHastear/genetic-linkage-and-crossing-over</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_Introductory_Biology_(CK-12)/3%3A_Genetics/3._10%3A_Genetic_Linkage" target="_blank">https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_Introductory_Biology_(CK-12)/3%3A_Genetics/3._10%3A_Genetic_Linkage</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/laws-of-inheritance/" target="_blank">https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/laws-of-inheritance/</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p>



































































































































</p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/ch3mendelexcept.html" target="_blank">https://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/ch3mendelexcept.html</a><span lang="">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/classical-genetics/variations-on-mendelian-genetics/a/variations-on-mendels-laws-overview" target="_blank">https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/classical-genetics/variations-on-mendelian-genetics/a/variations-on-mendels-laws-overview</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_(genetics)" target="_blank">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_(genetics)</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-classical-genetics/hs-non-mendelian-inheritance/a/multiple-alleles-incomplete-dominance-and-codominance" target="_blank">https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-classical-genetics/hs-non-mendelian-inheritance/a/multiple-alleles-incomplete-dominance-and-codominance</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-genotype-phenotype.html" target="_blank">https://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-genotype-phenotype.html</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_linkage" target="_blank">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_linkage</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/biology198/answers2.html" target="_blank">https://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/biology198/answers2.html</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><a href="http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/epistasis-gene-interaction-and-phenotype-effects-460" target="_blank">http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/epistasis-gene-interaction-and-phenotype-effects-460</a><span lang=""><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal"><br></p>
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@tipu ·
$0.05
<a href="https://tipu.online/curator?ritch" target="_blank">Upvoted &#128076;</a> (Mana: 5/20 - <a href="https://steemit.com/steem/@tipu/tipu-curate-project-update-recharging-curation-mana" target="_blank">need recharge?</a>)
👍  
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@loveforlove ·
z6cavhr7d
thanks.
👍  
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@stem.curate ·
Hi, I'm riccc96, a curator of stem.curate, I found your post and I had the pleasure to read it and appreciate it, you got our 100% vote if you like to come and visit us we are happy to welcome you with open arms

riccc96

Hello,

Your post has been manually curated by a @stem.curate curator.

<center>![FA8866FD-F2C3-43B3-A5A5-E0324BA4BB47.jpeg](https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmaqMpaEpJBAwJMN9bCHhmTzUEuymBj8V4BMsiJteZMG7L/FA8866FD-F2C3-43B3-A5A5-E0324BA4BB47.jpeg)</Center><center> Supporting Steemians on STEMGeeks</center>

We are dedicated to supporting great content, like yours on the [STEMGeeks](stemgeeks.net) tribe.

If you like what we are doing, please show your support as well by following our [Steem Auto curation trail](https://steemauto.com/dash.php?trail=Stem.curate&i=1).

Please join us on [discord](https://discord.gg/73WaANa).
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@steemstem ·
re-loveforlove-how-genes-are-inheri-1574851364-20191128t064142009z
<div class='text-justify'> <div class='pull-left'> <center> <br /> <img width='200' src='https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1553698283/weenlqbrqvvczjy6dayw.jpg'> </center>  <br/> </div> 

This post has been voted on by the **SteemSTEM curation team** and voting trail. It is elligible for support from @curie and @minnowbooster.<br /> 

If you appreciate the work we are doing, then consider supporting our witness [@stem.witness](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=stem.witness). Additional witness support to the [curie witness](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=curie) would be appreciated as well.<br /> 

For additional information please join us on the [SteemSTEM discord]( https://discord.gg/BPARaqn) and to get to know the rest of the community!<br />

Thanks for having used the <a href='https://www.steemstem.io'>steemstem.io</a> app and included @steemstem in the list of beneficiaries of this post. This granted you a stronger support from SteemSTEM.
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