create account

advanced mode

space | Trending


View on official site
@natord · (edited)
$58.93
Space Debris: A Problem Without a Solution?

http://i.imgsafe.org/753a86d92d.jpg

The first artificial satellite was launched October 4, 1957. Over the past 60 years more than 70 different countries and several private companies launched about 6,000 objects into the space.

1085 satellites are now in working condition, a large part belongs to the United States (450), then Russia (146) and China (135). The remaining 5,000 continue to rotate around the earth as debris.

http://i.imgsafe.org/75310c68a8.jpg
The first satellite Sputnik-1

The orbit on which the moving satellite, and its height depend on the purpose of the spacecraft. In rough form, we can divide orbits into three types, depending on their distance from the surface of the earth.

  • Low-Earth orbit 160-2000 km, 500 operational satellites (the meteorological satellites and stations).
  • medium-Earth orbit 5000-20000 km, 50 operational satellites (communication and observation satellites)
  • Geostationary orbit 20,000-50000 km. 535 operational satellites (satellites for weather, communication, monitoring solar activity).

http://i.imgsafe.org/749c3db56b.png
HERE you can use the interactive map to see all working and disabled satellites and their orbits.

So, if consider that 1085 satellites are distributed into these three orbits, you might think that we have enough free space to launch of thousands of new units… but it's not true. Inactive satellites (5000), boosters, and parts of spacecraft left in orbit as space debris, which can cause serious problems in subsequent launches.

The danger of space debris: The speed of movement of objects in earth orbit is at least 11,18 km/s (or 30.000 km/h). Such high rates of speed make even very small particles devastating.

http://i.imgsafe.org/74eef83805.jpg
The ball (size of 1cm) crashed into a steel plate at speeds of 6.7 km/s

In 1983, the grain with diameter is less than 1mm left a crack in the window of the space Shuttle. If its size was 1 cm, the collision could lead to the destruction (power-on collision is equivalent to the explosion of anti-tank grenades).

http://i.imgsafe.org/74c5bef94d.jpg
The result of the collision of the plastic piece of garbage (the size of 3cm) with aluminum protective shell of the satellite, at the speed of 7 km/s.

According to the latest data, today there are 300.000 objects at altitudes up to 2000 km, which belong to the category of dangerous space debris. Their total weight is 5000 tons.

  • 20,000 objects have a size greater than 10 cm. Any spacecraft will be destroyed in the collision.
  • 500,000 objects the size of 1-5 cm. In a collision can seriously damage a satellite or spaceship and destroy a portion of the compartments.
  • 10.000.000 objects are smaller than 1 cm. Gradually reduce the strength of the hull and can destroy the solar panels.

https://s27.postimg.org/tirhrtmub/1368180197_1050869099.gif

These particles continue to face with old satellites, creating more debris after the collision and increasing the area of its distribution, is the Kessler syndrome.


This map shows the orbits of all objects larger than 5 cm

It may seem that given the distances in space all this junk poses no threat- in this moment, pieces of debris fly in a radius of 8 km from the satellites every 2 minutes.

But when you consider how many satellites we continue to launch (for example: 4500 satellites for Elon Musk's WiFi project), you will understand that this range will be significantly reduced very fast.

Leaders in the pollution of the orbit: China- 40% (due to the weak technology), USA - 27.5%, Russia- 25.5%. The low-Earth orbit is the most contaminated, because it is here we show the most of cosmic activity.

Some debris will burn in the atmosphere, but it's not enough. Today, no country and no private company don’t have at their disposal a working space- scavenger. There are a number of projects, none of which has clear dates and even budget.

The program e.DeOrbit

the small spacecraft, which with the help of tentacles, nets or harpoons will collect the debris. What spacecraft will do with garbage after – unknown. On the one hand: all ingenious is simple, on the other hand: such a project could come up with a child.

http://i.imgsafe.org/7504c9aef0.jpg

CleanSpace One

suggest using a small spacecraft, about the size 300х100х100 mm in the form of a cube. The cube is attached to the useless satellite, or debris and using thrusters sends the object to the ground, so it will burned in the atmosphere.

http://i.imgsafe.org/7505de5734.jpg

The Japanese company JAXA

proposes to use electrodynamic rope. The rope is attached to the satellite or debris and under the influence of earth's magnetic field starts to reduce the speed of the object. Once the speed drops below the first space, the object falls to earth, burning up in the atmosphere. This option is suitable only for satellites, not for debris with a size 10 cm.

http://i.imgsafe.org/752800d396.jpg

Raytheon BBN Technologies

propose a method Space Debris Elimination – SpaDE. Satellites and debris will shoot down to a lower orbit using a special atmospheric gas explosions. It is expected to carry out directed explosions with a balloon near the object, the object will change its trajectory and fall to the atmosphere. However, developers do not explain how they will be able to make directed explosions for objects that move at a speed of 11,000 meters per second.

http://i.imgsafe.org/7504bb85e2.jpg

Star Technology and Research

offers as a solution a net of nano-satellites (net width is 3 kilometers). When interacting with the magnetic field of the earth the net generates a voltage, which changes the trajectory of the debris, sending it into the net. According to the developers, complete cleaning of the space within the Earth will take 12 years. Also not specified how the full net will be output from the orbit.

http://i.imgsafe.org/75176d9913.jpeg

Sling-Sat Space Sweeper

Scavenger, which with the help of special manipulators arms catches the object and change its trajectory, sending to the earth. Sling-Sat will use the energy from the cast to move to another object. The project has no deadline and budget.

http://i.imgsafe.org/7505414316.jpg

***

According to preliminary estimates of scientists, if do not start to clean up all this debris today, then after 50-60 years we will not be able to hold the launches of medium and big spacecraft. They will be destroyed by the space debris in low orbit. So, we still have time to find a solution.


sources: Satellites, Space debris, Kessler syndrome, Space cleaners, Satellite map, The world of fiction, EESA, images from Google search.


http://i.imgsafe.org/26faa4a0d4.png

👍  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
👎  
json_metadata{"tags":["space","debris","science","technology"],"image":["http://i.imgsafe.org/753a86d92d.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/75310c68a8.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/749c3db56b.png","http://i.imgsafe.org/74eef83805.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/74c5bef94d.jpg","https://s27.postimg.org/tirhrtmub/1368180197_1050869099.gif","http://i.imgsafe.org/7504c9aef0.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/7505de5734.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/752800d396.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/7504bb85e2.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/75176d9913.jpeg","http://i.imgsafe.org/7505414316.jpg","http://i.imgsafe.org/26faa4a0d4.png"],"links":["http://stuffin.space/?intldes=1996-030A","http://maps.esri.com/rc/sat2/index.html","https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite","https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_debris","https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kessler_syndrome","https://naked-science.ru/article/top/kosmicheskii-subbotnik-proekty","http://www.mirf.ru/science/kosmicheskiy-musor?_utl_t=fb","http://blogs.esa.int/cleanspace/category/e-deorbit/","https://steemit.com/@natord"],"app":"steemit/0.1","format":"markdown"}
last_update2017-01-24 17:12:48
created2017-01-24 13:33:12
active2017-01-24 17:12:48
last_payout1970-01-01 00:00:00
depth0
children9
children_rshares29,387,942,200,647,428,331,330,133,681
net_rshares94,909,311,900,227
vote_rshares94,923,765,746,962
children_abs_rshares95,069,220,436,625
cashout_time2017-01-25 14:12:27
max_cashout_time2017-02-07 13:33:12
total_vote_weight17,700,734,893,221,037,514
reward_weight10,000
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
author_rewards0
net_votes117
root_comment1,825,359
modefirst_payout
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
allow_repliestrue
allow_votestrue
allow_curation_rewardstrue
root_title"Space Debris: A Problem Without a Solution?"
pending_payout_value58.925 SBD
total_pending_payout_value58.928 SBD
author_reputation31,719,728,917,878
promoted0.000 SBD
author_curate_reward52.35%
vote details (120)

vote your-acct "natord" "space-debris-a-problem-without-a-solution" 100 true
post_comment your-acct "re-natord-space-debris-a-problem-without-a-solution-20170124t111951851z" "natord" "space-debris-a-problem-without-a-solution" "" "your reply.." "{}" true

View on official site
@norbu ·
$9.87
"Loony" Students Want To Brew Beer On The Moon. A New Bottle But The Same Old "Moonshine"?

A team of students in the U.S. is planning to brew beer on the moon for the first time and plan on sending a canister aboard an Indian lunar lander that is set to launch this year on the 28th of December.

The group, which calls itself “Team Original Gravity”, is one of 25 teams selected from a pool of 3,000, to compete for a spot aboard the TeamIndus spacecraft, and is among the finalists in the Lab2Moon competition, a part of the Google Lunar XPRIZE Challenge.


https://i.imgsafe.org/6f6ae6f38d.jpg

Team Original Gravity members from left: Johnny Koo, Jared Buchanan, Han Lu Ling, Neeki Ashari, Srivaths Kalyan, and Tavish Traut. The loony lot! [Photo Source]

According to these young scientists, understanding how yeast behaves on the Moon is not just important for brewing beer in space, it is also important for the development of pharmaceuticals and yeast-containing foods, like bread, here on earth.

The spacecraft is owned by the Indian start-up TeamIndus, one of four teams in the world to win a $1 million Milestone Prize for successfully simulating the landing technology concept of its spacecraft and the experiments will be evaluated by an international jury in March when teams fly to Bangalore to showcase their prototype.

I am not sure if the students know this, but brewing beer on the Moon will have a certain resonance for Indians, as the ancient link between the legendary elixir, soma, of ancient Indian literature and the Moon is well known in in these parts, and it shall be interesting to see what transpires next.

But one thing is sure, the word moonshine will have a new meaning if all goes well!


https://i.imgsafe.org/6f7436163f.gif

Ahh...for a tipple on the moon... [Photo Source]


Sources for the post and further reading

  1. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/magazines/panache/now-moon-beer-may-not-be-a-loony-idea/articleshow/56742766.cms
  2. http://www.ibtimes.co.in/can-beer-be-brewed-moon-engineering-students-will-solve-mystery-soon-713342
  3. http://mashable.com/2017/01/23/brewing-beer-on-the-moon-experiment/#KqKgCC5eYqqB
  4. http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/U.S.-student-team-plans-to-brew-beer-on-the-moon/article17083057.ece
  5. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/magazines/panache/now-moon-beer-may-not-be-a-loony-idea/articleshow/56742766.cms ___
    If you like my work, please up-vote and read more at @norbu. You may also click the down-arrow next to my name (before my reputation score below) to follow me. Or you may just re-steem to share the love! 😊
    ___
👍  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
👎  
json_metadata{"tags":["space","news","science","moon","beer"],"users":["norbu"],"image":["https://i.imgsafe.org/6f6ae6f38d.jpg","https://i.imgsafe.org/6f7436163f.gif"],"links":["http://www.ibtimes.co.in/can-beer-be-brewed-moon-engineering-students-will-solve-mystery-soon-713342","http://mashable.com/2017/01/23/brewing-beer-on-the-moon-experiment/#KqKgCC5eYqqB","http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/magazines/panache/now-moon-beer-may-not-be-a-loony-idea/articleshow/56742766.cms","http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/U.S.-student-team-plans-to-brew-beer-on-the-moon/article17083057.ece"],"app":"steemit/0.1","format":"markdown"}
created2017-01-24 07:25:09
active2017-01-24 15:41:39
last_payout1970-01-01 00:00:00
depth0
children5
children_rshares21,572,088,603,975,389,757,353,074,096
net_rshares37,698,472,537,140
vote_rshares37,698,681,095,489
children_abs_rshares37,728,746,761,334
cashout_time2017-01-25 11:55:16
max_cashout_time2017-02-07 07:25:09
total_vote_weight16,677,216,252,772,775,116
reward_weight10,000
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
author_rewards0
net_votes111
root_comment1,823,528
modefirst_payout
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
allow_repliestrue
allow_votestrue
allow_curation_rewardstrue
root_title""Loony" Students Want To Brew Beer On The Moon. A New Bottle But The Same Old "Moonshine"?"
pending_payout_value9.867 SBD
total_pending_payout_value9.868 SBD
author_reputation80,536,745,986,012
promoted0.000 SBD
author_curate_reward24.24%
vote details (113)

vote your-acct "norbu" "loony-students-want-to-brew-beer-on-the-moon-a-new-bottle-but-the-same-old-moonshine" 100 true
post_comment your-acct "re-norbu-loony-students-want-to-brew-beer-on-the-moon-a-new-bottle-but-the-same-old-moonshine-20170124t111951892z" "norbu" "loony-students-want-to-brew-beer-on-the-moon-a-new-bottle-but-the-same-old-moonshine" "" "your reply.." "{}" true

View on official site
· @busser ·
$6.02
Monochrome landscapes of dwarf planet Ceres

Dwarf panet Ceres is the largest body in the main asteroid belt and at the same time it is the smallest dwarf planet in the Solar System (not including giant planets satellites). Its surface gravity is only 0,029 of Earth's, so it's different from that busy Ceres, we could see in the popular SyFy series Expanse.

Series creators give elegant explanation of Earth-like gravitation: Ceres is made hollow and gravitation is provided with artifical spinning. But let's return to reality though..

 NASA spacecraft Dawn is orbiting Ceres since March 2015, after one year orbiting Vesta - another asteroid in the belt. Here is short video by NASA, simulatung flight over crater Occator - famous with its salt deposits.

https://youtu.be/PpWaL7o-UoQ?list=PLTiv_XWHnOZpbLZz4C2iQW2bgfdzKMbhS

Another fascinating feature on Ceres surface is Ahuna Mons - strange looking lonely mountain 5 kilometers high. When first discovered, it seemes so unusual for Ceres, that some thought it is artificial. But with detailed images seems that Ahuna is ice cryovolcano.

 

After accomplishing its mission, Dawn will rest at stable orbit around Ceres. There are chances that in 2030th it will witness Chinese mission arrival for sample return which is planned now.

👍  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
👎  
json_metadata{"tags":["science","space","asteroid"],"image":["https://img-fotki.yandex.ru/get/93917/28554600.2/0_1af7f1_c6ff4ac7_XL.jpg","https://img.youtube.com/vi/PpWaL7o-UoQ/0.jpg","http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA20915.jpg"],"links":["https://youtu.be/PpWaL7o-UoQ?list=PLTiv_XWHnOZpbLZz4C2iQW2bgfdzKMbhS","http://english.nssc.cas.cn/ns/NU/201410/W020141016603613379886.pdf"],"app":"steemit/0.1","format":"html"}
created2017-01-24 13:44:33
active2017-01-24 14:56:57
last_payout1970-01-01 00:00:00
depth0
children3
children_rshares2959,347,234,548,285,124,873,032,992
net_rshares29,037,557,707,244
vote_rshares29,037,766,265,593
children_abs_rshares29,042,281,716,058
cashout_time2017-01-25 14:31:02
max_cashout_time2017-02-07 13:44:33
total_vote_weight16,213,331,085,020,808,237
reward_weight10,000
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
author_rewards0
net_votes31
root_comment1,825,428
modefirst_payout
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
allow_repliestrue
allow_votestrue
allow_curation_rewardstrue
root_title"Monochrome landscapes of dwarf planet Ceres"
total_pending_payout_value6.021 SBD
author_reputation10,609,001,878,489
promoted0.000 SBD
author_curate_reward8.89%
vote details (33)

vote your-acct "busser" "monochrome-landscapes-of-dwarf-planet-ceres" 100 true
post_comment your-acct "re-busser-monochrome-landscapes-of-dwarf-planet-ceres-20170124t111951911z" "busser" "monochrome-landscapes-of-dwarf-planet-ceres" "" "your reply.." "{}" true

View on official site
@lad2u2 ·
$0.01
The Secret Space Programs Shocking Purpose Revealed

https://youtu.be/RaghqW1QWQQ

This is one of the most important videos that I've recently come across. It depicts how our own government, in cahoots with the oligarchy, are planning to annihilate our Earth and all of humanity. Things that are going on today are explained in this video. Please watch, talk to your friends and family about it and share it. Unless we all get together and try to stop this, we are doomed.

👍  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
👎  
json_metadata{"tags":["space","program"],"image":["https://img.youtube.com/vi/RaghqW1QWQQ/0.jpg"],"links":["https://youtu.be/RaghqW1QWQQ"],"app":"steemit/0.1","format":"markdown"}
created2017-01-24 00:40:09
active2017-01-24 01:55:06
last_payout1970-01-01 00:00:00
depth0
children2
children_rshares21,341,619,652,035,938,737,208,561
net_rshares311,194,421,081
vote_rshares311,402,979,430
children_abs_rshares311,611,537,779
cashout_time2017-01-25 00:49:41
max_cashout_time2017-02-07 00:40:09
total_vote_weight1,332,367,002,746,586,007
reward_weight10,000
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
author_rewards0
net_votes22
root_comment1,821,966
modefirst_payout
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
allow_repliestrue
allow_votestrue
allow_curation_rewardstrue
root_title"The Secret Space Programs Shocking Purpose Revealed"
total_pending_payout_value0.008 SBD
author_reputation2,497,757,827
promoted0.000 SBD
author_curate_reward69.33%
vote details (24)

vote your-acct "lad2u2" "the-secret-space-programs-shocking-purpose-revealed" 100 true
post_comment your-acct "re-lad2u2-the-secret-space-programs-shocking-purpose-revealed-20170124t111951923z" "lad2u2" "the-secret-space-programs-shocking-purpose-revealed" "" "your reply.." "{}" true

View on official site
· @terencehill888 · (edited)
$0.00
Jupiter

Jupiter ist mit einem Äquatordurchmesser von rund 143.000 Kilometern der größte Planet des Sonnensystems. Mit einer durchschnittlichen Entfernung von 778 Millionen Kilometern ist er von der Sonne aus gesehen der fünfte Planet.

Radius: 69.911 km
Masse: 1,898 × 10^27 kg (317,8 M⊕)
Entfernung von der Sonne: 778.500.000 km
Umlaufzeit: 12 Jahre
Tageslänge: 0d 9h 56m
Monde: Europa, Ganymed, Io, Kallisto, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, mehr

Jupiter
Der Planet Jupiter. Rendering von A. Barmettler.
Der Planet Jupiter. Rendering von A. Barmettler.

Jupiter ist mit 140'000 km Durchmesser der grösste Planet in unserem Sonnensystem. Er besitzt mehr Masse als alle anderen Planeten zusammen. Nur die Sonne ist noch 1000 x schwerer als Jupiter. Trotzdem muss sich auch die Sonne aufgrund der Jupiterschwerkraft etwas bewegen. Jupiter und Sonne kreisen einmal in 12 Jahren um ihren gemeinsamen Schwerpunkt. Der liegt nicht in der Sonnenmitte sondern ca. an der Sonnenoberfläche. Somit ist es nur näherungsweise richtig, wenn man sagt, die Sonne ruhe in der Mitte des Planetensystems.

Der Jupiter in Zahlen
Distanz zur Sonne1 778'412'000 km
Exzentrizität 0.04892
Umlaufzeit 11.862615 J
Min. Dist. zur Erde 590'800'000 km
Max. Winkeldurchm. 49.9"
Äquatorradius 71'492 km
Abplattung2 0.064874
Masse 1'898.8·10 24 kg
Dichte 1'330 kg/m3
Rotationszeit3 0.41354 Tage
Schwerkraft4 2.36 g
Mittl. Temperatur5 -110°C
Neigung der Achse 1.30530°
Atmosphäre H2, He
Quelle: The Astronomical Almanac u.a.
1 Grosse Halbachse
2 (Äquator minus Pol)/Äquator
3 Auf die Sterne bezogen (siderisch)
4 Am Äquator, 1g = 9.81 m/s2
5 Atmosphärentemperatur bei 1 bar Druck
J = Jahre

Jupiter umläuft die Sonne (oder eben genauer den Schwerpunkt des Sonnensystems) in 5x grösserem Abstand als die Erde. Trotzdem ist Jupiter an unserem Himmel ein sehr auffälliges Gestirn. Er erscheint dem blossen Auge als Stern, der heller ist als alle Fixsterne. Bereits im Fernglas kann man die im Jahre 1610 von Galilei entdeckten vier grossen Monde als Sternchen erkennen. Im Fernrohr kann man Details seiner Wolken und Wettersysteme erkennen. Er erscheint dem Betrachter nicht kreisrund, sondern abgeplattet. Da sein Tag nur 9 Stunden und 55 Minuten dauert, sind die Fliehkräfte an seinem Äquator stark genug, um ihn zu einem deutlichen Ellipsoid zu verformen.

Wie die Sonne besteht auch Jupiter aus Wasserstoff und Helium. Die beiden Gase sind die leichtesten und häufigsten chemischen Elemente im Weltall. Man spricht auch vom Gasplaneten Jupiter, da es unter den Wolken keine feste Oberfläche gibt. Jedoch darf man nicht die Vorstellung haben, dass man nun mit einem Raumschiff einfach durch Jupiter hindurch fliegen könne wie durch eine Wolke. Bereits wenige Tausend Kilometer unter der obersten Wolkenschicht ist der Druck der Atmosphäre bereits so hoch, dass der Wasserstoff eher einem elektrisch leitenden Metall denn einem Gas ähnelt.

Jupiter wird von zahlreichen Monden umkreist. Interessant sind aber vor allem die vier grossen Galileischen Monde. Io und Europa sind die inneren beiden Galileischen Monde und sind etwa so gross wie der Mond der Erde. Die starken Gezeitenkräfte des Jupiter halten ihr Inneres jedoch warm, so dass sie auch heute noch geologisch aktiv sind. Einschlagkrater sind auf ihrer Oberfläche so selten wie auf der Erde. Io weist eine grosse Zahl aktiver Vulkane auf und Europa ist von einem Ozean umgeben, der sich unter einem kilometerdicken Eispanzer verbirgt. Ganymed und Kallisto sind etwa so gross wie der Planet Merkur. Sie sind Welten aus Eis. Nur Io besitzt eine, wenn auch hauchdünne Atmosphäre (weniger als 1 Pascal = 10 mbar Bodendruck) aus Vulkangasen.

Die Erforschung des Jupiter profitierte besonders von Raumsondenvorbeiflügen. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist dabei die Mission Galileo, die eine Atomsphärensonde aussetzte und seit 1995 den Jupiters umkreist und detailreiche Aufnahmen des Riesenplaneten und seiner grossen Monde zurückfunkte. Auch das Weltraumteleskop Hubble hat viel zur Erforschung des Jupiters beigetragen. Beispielsweise konnte mit dem Weltraumteleskop der Einschlag von 24 Kometentrümmern auf Jupiter verfolgt werden.
Jupiter selbst beobachten
Occultation of Io
Die Mond von Jupiter umlaufen den Gasplaneten. Dabei kann deren Schatten die Planetenoberfläche durchlaufen. Darüber hinaus ist der Grosse Rote Fleck ein interessantes Ziel für das eigene Amateurteleskop. A. Barmettler.

Jupiter ist immer heller als alle Fixsterne. Somit kann man ihn nicht verfehlen, auch wenn man nur ganz grob weiss, in welcher Himmelsrichtung er zu finden ist. In einem Fernglas sieht man bereits die vier grossen Monde als kleine Sternchen. Ein Teleskop zeigt viele Details in seinen Wolkenbändern. Manchmal sieht man auch den Schatten eines Mondes als dunkles Fleckchen über den Jupiter ziehen.
Galileische Monde

Die vier grossen Monde des Jupiters sind eigene Welten, die den aus Wasserstoff und Helium bestehenden Riesen Jupiter umkreisen. Daneben gibt es noch eine grosse Anzahl viel kleinerer Monde, die jedoch nicht oder nur mit grossem Aufwand von Amateurastronomen beobachtbar sind.

Diese vier grossen Monde in Tabelle 1 werden zu Ehren Galileis Galileische Monde genannt. Ob er der allererste Mensch war, der diese Monde sah, ist nicht eindeutig überliefert, doch hat er sie zu Beginn des 17. Jahrhunderts systematisch beobachtet und sah sich durch diese Beobachtungen im heliozentrischen Weltbild bestärkt. Die Monde des Jupiter waren Beispiele von Himmelskörpern, die eindeutig nicht die Erde umkreisen und waren für Galilei ein Modell für ein modernes Bild des Sonnensystems, das nicht die Erde im Mittelpunkt sah.

Die Galileische Monde

Name Durchmesser Bahnradius Umlaufzeit
Io 3630 km, 1.2421'000 km 1.769 Tage
Europa 3138 km, 1.1
672'000 km 3.551 Tage
Ganimedes 5262 km, 1.81'072'000 km 7.155 Tage
Kallisto 4800 km, 1.6
1'888'000 km 16.689 Tage

Tabelle 1: Die vier grossen Jupitermonde. Der Durchmesser wird absolut in Kilometer und als scheinbarer Durchmesser in Bogensekunden bei geringster Distanz zur Erde angegeben.

Galilei hatte nicht nur Freunde und Bewunderer. Seine Bücher wurden bis ins beginnende 19. Jahrhundert von der katholischen Kirche verboten. Die offizielle Rehabilitierung liess sogar bis zum Besuch der ersten Raumsonden im System der Galileischen Monde auf sich warten.

Schon mit einem Fernglas lassen sich die Jupitermonde erkennen. Allerdings müssen Sie dazu eine ruhige Hand haben. Nur so können sie die Lichtpunkte neben dem als heller Fleck erscheinenden Jupiter erkennen. Tanzt Jupiter wie wild im Blickfeld herum, hat Ihr Auge keine Chance, die schwachen Sternchen zu erkennen. Versuchen Sie deshalb, sich irgendwo anzulehnen oder abzustützen. Am besten wäre die Montierung auf einem Stativ. Dies steht jedoch meist nicht zur Verfügung. Mit einem Fernglas können Sie bereits Mondfinsternisse der Galileischen Monde beobachten. Um eine Sonnenfinsternis auf Jupiter zu beobachten, benötigen Sie jedoch ein kleineres Amateurteleskop. Die übrigen Jupitermonde sind mit kleineren und mittleren Amateurinstrumenten nicht zu beobachten.
Sonnen- und Mondfinsternisse auf Jupiter

Die Galileischen Monde umkreisen den Planeten Jupiter in guter Näherung in der Bahnebene des Jupiters um die Sonne. Da die Jupiterbahn selbst nur wenig gegen die Bahnebene der Erde um die Sonne geneigt ist, blicken wir somit immer mehr oder weniger flach auf die Bahnen der Jupitermonde. Deshalb erscheint die Bewegung der Jupitermonde dem irdischen Beobachter eher als ein Pendeln um Jupiter denn als Kreisen. Die geringe Bahnneigung der Monde macht es auch möglich, dass Sonnen- und Mondfinsternisse auf Jupiter alltägliche Dinge sind. Das Faszinierende daran ist, dass diese Phänomene schon mit kleineren Teleskopen zu beobachten sind.

https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/hs-2016-24-a-print-new.jpg

👍  , , , , , , , , , , , ,
👎  ,
json_metadata{"tags":["jupiter","astronomie","space","german"],"image":["https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/hs-2016-24-a-print-new.jpg"],"app":"steemit/0.1","format":"markdown"}
last_update2017-01-23 16:45:27
created2017-01-23 14:32:21
active2017-01-23 16:45:27
last_payout1970-01-01 00:00:00
depth0
children1
children_rshares2357,518,632,875,482,479,896,264
net_rshares66,000,866,970
vote_rshares250,530,743,780
children_abs_rshares457,227,540,148
cashout_time2017-01-24 18:02:14
max_cashout_time2017-02-06 14:32:21
total_vote_weight1,087,270,459,075,865,611
reward_weight10,000
total_payout_value0.000 SBD
curator_payout_value0.000 SBD
author_rewards0
net_votes11
root_comment1,818,238
modefirst_payout
max_accepted_payout1,000,000.000 SBD
percent_steem_dollars10,000
allow_repliestrue
allow_votestrue
allow_curation_rewardstrue
root_titleJupiter
pending_payout_value0.001 SBD
total_pending_payout_value0.002 SBD
author_reputation31,692,690,432
promoted0.000 SBD
author_curate_reward70.29%
vote details (15)

vote your-acct "terencehill888" "jupiter" 100 true
post_comment your-acct "re-terencehill888-jupiter-20170124t111951943z" "terencehill888" "jupiter" "" "your reply.." "{}" true