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自我服务偏差与认知偏差 #Day8 by huangzuomin

View this thread on steempeak.com
· @huangzuomin ·
$2.40
自我服务偏差与认知偏差 #Day8
http://newappaz.oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com/wherein_images/post/20200515/64d9cba261cf4b36bda33f0482f6d686.jpg

http://newappaz.oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com/wherein_images/post/20200515/6ef4e37aafb34b1aa818ac0d689cce3e.jpg

http://newappaz.oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com/wherein_images/post/20200515/54c06348f80b48f9b3cc4156210c92c4.jpg

http://newappaz.oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com/wherein_images/post/20200515/04f9f96c624f4f7d8400beb139e04333.jpg



我以前对心理学特别不以为然,总认为心理学是种“玄学”。最近陆陆续续接触了一些心理学著作,才发觉心理学别有洞天。

阅读社会心理学时,发现以前没有留意的现象、案例,在书中都有分析,特别有趣。

夫妻俩谁做了更多的家务,谁承担了更多的子女教育责任,永远不会达成统一的结论;一个组织中,90%的人会认为自己的贡献高于平均水平;罗胖在跨年演讲中说,梁宁去北大调研,几乎所有女生都认为自己的颜值要高于平均水平;我们总是将成功归于自己的努力,而失败是客观条件所限或者是别人的偏见。一桌人喝酒,把各人自己报的酒量相加必定大于总数,群体中每个人对自己为共同工作所做的贡献的评价之和总是超过百分之百。

心理学家说,这叫自我服务偏差,一点也不奇怪。认识自己的确是一件很难的事。

和自我服务偏差类似的还有认知偏差,说的是能力欠缺的人有一种虚幻的自我优越感,错误地认为自己比真实情况更加优秀。

我有个前同事,我是在接触心理学后,才明白她或许是患有某种认知偏差。因为每次讨论问题,她总是习惯的把错误归结为别的部门的缘故。


认知偏差,也叫做达克效应,以前在网上看过一张流传很广的图片,很有启发,特地转帖过来和大家分享。


康奈尔大学的David Dunning和Justin Kruger于1999年首次在实验中观测到此认识偏差。 Dunning和Kruger通过对人们阅读、驾驶、下棋或打网球等各种技能的研究发现:

能力差的人通常会高估自己的技能水准;

能力差的人不能正确认识到其他真正有此技能的人的水准;

能力差的人无法认知且正视自身的不足,及其不足之极端程度;

如果能力差的人能够经过恰当训练大幅度提高能力水准,他们最终会认知到且能承认他们之前的无能程度。

简言之即:庸人容易因欠缺自知之明而自我膨胀。

 Dunning和Kruger将其归咎于元认知上的缺陷,能力欠缺的人无法认识到自身的无能,不能准确评估自身的能力。

他们的研究还表明,反之,非常能干的人会低估自己的能力,错误地假定他们自己能够很容易完成的任务,别人也能够很容易地完成。

来自于 [WhereIn Android] (http://www.wherein.io)
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@jsquare ·
JCAR 5월 구독보팅입니다. 
행복한 5월 되세요
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