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Steroids, in Our Systems and in the Ecosystem by agmoore2

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· @agmoore2 · (edited)
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Steroids, in Our Systems and in the Ecosystem
<div class="MarkdownViewer Markdown"><div><p>Glucocorticoids are among the most <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/glucocorticoids" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">widely prescribed</a>
 drugs in the world.  Applications for this class of drug have grown 
over the decades.  So too has an awareness of the dangers they 
present...both to humans who take them, and to animals that absorb them 
because the drugs have leached into the environment.</p>
<h4><center><a href="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Ptereleotris_zebra.jpg" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com"><em>Ptereleotris Zebra</em> Fish:</a></center></h4>
<h6><center>Affected by Glucocorticoids in the Environment</center></h6>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmddMqWJGzgChGWSpustcAcyvEWNk1pDBTYQsugc8nxkng/zebra%20Ptereleotris%20Use%20with%20credit%20to%20Lonnie%20Huffman%203.0.jpg" alt="zebra Ptereleotris Use with credit to Lonnie Huffman 3.0.jpg"></center>
<h5><center><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X19307210" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Observed changes:</a></center></h5>
<h6>In a controlled study,  five glucocorticoid formulations were 
introduced.  Overall, some of the changes noted in the fish: liver 
chemistry, which influences circadian rhythm, glucose metabolism and 
immune response;  the upregulation and down regulation of certain 
chemicals by the brain;  decrease in the number of mature oocytes.</h6>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"></p>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRRQ2uZ7kXhmjckGKAtmzQc9kWRp6mAhm73pN8Eahn1Wb/fish%20line%20blue%20red%20white%20gif.gif" alt="fish line blue red white gif.gif"></p>
<p>In 1948, cortisone was used successfully, for the first time, to treat a patient <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12114256" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">with rheumatoid arthritis.</a>Today, the class of drugs to which cortisone belongs, glucocorticoids, has become the mainstay of treatment for <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/glucocorticoids" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">between 56-68% of patients</a> who have rheumatoid arthritis.</p>
<p>Glucocorticoids--GCs--are involved in a number of vital life processes. They help to <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01545/full" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">control:</a>
  metabolism, electrolyte balance, immune system function, mood 
stability, cognition, reproduction, cardiovascular system and growth. 
So, an excess or deficit of GCs can have a devastating effect on 
well-being, and even survival.</p>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmZ7HmBeLaSV1MPSE6EJ6De8M6bDs38iFX9Yq9pSfPrysL/fish%20line%20forward%20blend%20gif.gif" alt="fish line forward blend gif.gif"></p>
<p>While GCs were first used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it was discovered over time that they were powerful <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01545/full" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">anti-inflammatories</a>
 and could be helpful in a number of conditions.  It is likely that 
readers of this post have used some form of  GC.  These medicines are 
prescribed to alleviate skin rashes, eye inflammation, asthma, 
bronchitis and a host of other maladies, including serious autoimmune 
diseases.  GCs are even useful in the treatment of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216001" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">some cancers</a> and, in certain circumstances, <a href="https://www.americanlaboratory.com/914-Application-Notes/340464-An-Effective-Treatment-Strategy-for-Cytokine-Storm-in-Severe-Influenza/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">acute bouts of flu.</a><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"><br>
</p><center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmV5bAKZNKVce19WCpnWyTv5S9sVxtynpKHjSnRSxAGBmS/pills%202%20gif.gif" alt="pills 2 gif.gif"></center><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg">
<h4><center><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rosy_Red_Minnows_fullsize.jpg" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Rosy Red Fathead Minnows</a> </center></h4>
<h6><center>Undergo Changes Related to Glucocorticoid Exposure in Controlled Experiments</center></h6>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmcXCobUxepeQBierqzBUgv5vntx1DsxFa4u8PnpakUoXv/Rosy%20Red%20fathead%20Minnowsfullsize%20words.jpg" alt="Rosy Red fathead Minnowsfullsize words.jpg"></center>
<h5><center><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869980" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Some observed changes:</a> </center></h5>
<p>Decrease in the number of lymphocytes, plasma glucose increased, and female fish developed secondary sexual characteristics.<img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmZi4KHi9UJuD4ZBxHtsxmPBZYytximh2NdbsA9sePcbmZ/fish%20gif4.gif" alt="fish gif4.gif"><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"></p>
<h3><center>Glucocorticoids and the HPA Axis</center></h3>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"><br>
The therapeutic effect of GCs resides in the role they play in what is known as the <a href="https://www.neuroscientificallychallenged.com/glossary/hpa-axis" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">HPA Axis.</a> This is a coordinated interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal glands.</p>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmbi6ioD2Wi99cYR8aJKwEbpyVDtHuCAktvLqLuVzu5sFM/HPA%20Complex%20messenging%203.gif" alt="HPA Complex messenging 3.gif"></center><br>
<center><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HPA-axis_-_anterior_view_(with_text).svg" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Anatomography  CC2.1 Japan license</a></center>
<p>The hypothalamus receives a message that the body is under stress. 
The hypothalamus then releases a hormone,  corticotropin-releasing 
hormone (CRH), and sends that hormone to the pituitary gland.  The 
pituitary gland responds by releasing its own hormone, 
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).  As this name suggests, ACTH is sent
 to the adrenal glands--two glands that sit on top of the kidneys.</p>
<p>ACTH instructs the adrenal glands to release cortisol--a powerful glucocorticoid.  <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538239/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Cortisol</a>
 goes to work on a number of body systems to deal with the stress 
condition.  Some of the things that happen are: glucose levels are 
increased; blood pressure is increased; and blood glucose levels 
available to the brain are increased.  The body is in alert status to 
deal with a stressful situation.</p>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ7xR3saPu9AXCVirFvZ6bvjuJKzJMCwiSyPgVKmUKteG/waves.gif" alt="waves.gif"></p>
<h5><center><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Browntrout050.jpg" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Brown Trout</a>: Affected by Glucocorticoids in Controlled Experiments</center></h5>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmSdcLfbSvsde5NyqSnobJAiLH3a94LXqJEdHg34zvfqm6/Brown%20trout2%20Philthy54%20at%20English%20Wikipedia%203.0.jpg" alt="Brown trout2 Philthy54 at English Wikipedia 3.0.jpg"></center>
<h5><center><a href="https://jeb.biologists.org/content/220/9/1693.abstract" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com"><em>Observed Changes</em></a></center></h5>
<h6>"... significant decrease in growth rate..." which varied with different levels of exposure.</h6>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmbsKPw3mHsAuB5ooGCoB57ubE9ZuE2GhFZY9CnSK3eJNh/light%20turn%20it%20off%20gif.gif" alt="light turn it off gif.gif"></center>
<h3><center>Turn It Off!!!</center></h3>
<p>Because of all the changes instigated by release of cortisol, there 
has to be a point at which this accelerated flow of hormones stops.  The
 signal to stop occurs  when cortisol reaches a certain level in the 
bloodstream.  The hypothalamus and the hippocampus receive this signal 
and begin to end the hormone surge.<br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"></p>
<h4><center>Hippocampus (Marked in Red)</center></h4>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmP91XosoM97hKqpviZMxnfQcF9fbfsLKV55qDWcsEsrbF/Hippocampus2%20life%20sciences%20databases%20CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp.gif" alt="Hippocampus2 life sciences databases CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp.gif"></center>
<h6><center>Credit: <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hippocampus_small.gif" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Life Sciences Databases,</a> CC-BY-SA-2.1 license</center></h6>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"></p>
<p>Cortisol is always present in the bloodstream of a healthy person.  
It is released in a steady daily rhythm, which peaks in early morning 
and wanes in the evening. In some conditions, there is too much 
cortisol...<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022669/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">chronically stressed people,</a>
 for example,  may have elevated levels.  And there are some conditions 
in which there is insufficient cortisol.  This is the case in <a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350293" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Addison's Disease.</a>  A deficiency also can result from long-term therapy with GCs.</p>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ7xR3saPu9AXCVirFvZ6bvjuJKzJMCwiSyPgVKmUKteG/waves.gif" alt="waves.gif"></center>
<h4><center>Fish Get Stressed and Release Cortisol</center></h4>
<p>It turns out, fish have a stress axis, also: the HPI axis.  In this 
axis,  the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and interrenal tissue 
coordinate to release cortisol when a fish is stressed.  Recent <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123411" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">research</a>
 has shown that one  way to assess long-term stress levels in fish is to
 measure the amount of cortisol that has accumulated in their scales.</p>
<p>As is true in mammals, cortisol plays a vital role in many life processes of fish.<br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"></p>
<h4><center>HPI Axis in Fish</center></h4>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmSs3gWi5KpjgZetNq6kjmWEUrhtSzXRc1Aj1eB8pZVNzn/HPI%20Axis%20in%20fish%20gif3.gif" alt="HPI Axis in fish gif3.gif"></center><br>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmTWz7guCsQ5oKEt4Uuyy6bm1bvvWTw4KTsfC7QCrU92UG/adapted%20pixaby%20image%20fish.jpg" alt="adapted pixaby image fish.jpg"></center><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg">
<p>Salmon:  research has shown that fluctuating levels of cortisol play a
 role in the life cycle of migrating salmon.  Young salmon leaving 
spawning grounds <a href="https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/42/3/574/723971" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">show spikes in cortisol</a>
 as they imprint their surroundings on their olfactory systems.  It is 
essentially through their olfactory system that salmon will find they 
way back to the spawning grounds later in life.<br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"><br>
</p><center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQJgnPAAFxFqt29XmXzN6tsb5BTVQosGQfj4rUFXaXv6J/sockeye%20pixabay3%20gif.gif" alt="sockeye pixabay3 gif.gif"></center><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"><br>
Another example of cortisol in the fish life cycle may be seen in the bluebanded goby.  Bluebanded gobies <a href="https://oceana.org/marine-life/ocean-fishes/bluebanded-goby" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">mate in pairs.</a>
  The female lays the eggs and the male cares for them. Depending on 
circumstances, male can become female and female can become male.  And, 
unlike many <a href="https://ourblueplanet.bbcearth.com/blog/?article=incredible-sex-changing-fish-from-blue-planet" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">sex-changing fish,</a> bluebanded goby sex transition can be bidirectional.
<p>Cortisol plays a significant role in this transition.  Higher levels of cortisol <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820965/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">suppress feminization and enhance masculinization.</a></p>
<h5><center>Bluebanded Goby</center></h5>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmbQVDtZkHbf7umchLJBeLj8j8WVDNyeKvpLqYXUBhsJAu/Bluebanded%20Gobies2%20Aquaimages%20at%20English%20Wikipedia%202.5.jpg" alt="Bluebanded Gobies2 Aquaimages at English Wikipedia 2.5.jpg"><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg"><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ7xR3saPu9AXCVirFvZ6bvjuJKzJMCwiSyPgVKmUKteG/waves.gif" alt="waves.gif"></p>
<p>It is because GCs play a vital role in fish development and behavior,
 that scientists have been looking at the amount of these hormones 
present in water systems.  For example, a 2007 study published in <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es062746o" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Environmental Science Technology</a>
 reported that sewage discharge in China contained various 
concentrations of "prednisone, prednisolone, cortisone, cortisol, 
dexamethasone, and 6ฮฑ-methylprednisolone"--all synthetic 
glucocorticoids.</p>
<center><strong><em>Sewage Treatment Plant</em></strong></center><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmdu7EHzp2Ep1J9LCk9FwhdusB1np51NDwBTHgGy35MGXa/sewage%20treatment%20plant%20pixabay.jpg" alt="sewage treatment plant pixabay.jpg"><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmZRpTsu7kUnTfJPeoLLE7sE9XwASQJ1AF6EdUUtnXtj7f/pixabay%20image.jpg" alt="pixabay image.jpg"><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmRy5X6FZN5QrDqPCuMuAhA3npgPL7NeYnnDsKYQ2aFV2M/blank.jpg" alt="blank.jpg">
<p>Another <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es100013x" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">study,</a> from the Netherlands,  showed "...high glucocorticogenic activity in waste waters collected at various sites..."</p>
<p>And in yet another study,  <a href="https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/etc.3136" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Japanese researchers</a> found significant presence of glutococoricoids in effluence.  Concentrations varied by season and/or water temperature.</p>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ7xR3saPu9AXCVirFvZ6bvjuJKzJMCwiSyPgVKmUKteG/waves.gif" alt="waves.gif"></p>
<h4><center>In Summary</center></h4>
<p>In 2012, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3515810/#!po=1.47059" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Scientific Reports</a>
 published a study that looked at glucocorticoids discharged into water 
systems.  The findings of this study will serve as a summary for my 
blog.  Researchers found:<br>
..."previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen
 activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. 
Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and 
interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This 
prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human 
populations."</p>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmXFprKnLSFK84TG1kzdbdjLSD46TFok74GQ3e43YGsDoW/seascape%20gif%20blend.gif" alt="seascape gif blend.gif"><br>
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</p><center><em>Thank you for reading my blog</em></center><br>
<center><img src="https://steemitimages.com/0x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmVLV2kpmXe64d4Sf4boeo7X3UUpJjkwMj466n2WZv2DR2/fox%20and%20squirrel%20friendsgif.gif" alt="fox and squirrel friendsgif.gif"></center><br>
<center><em>Steem On</em></center>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ8DEYfCy5iPiDs35WywUhqDZdbf7oDiZ9WhZYWXAP4XD/line%20steemstem%20grey.jpg" alt="line steemstem grey.jpg"><br>
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<h3>Image Sources not Otherwise Credited</h3>
<h6>Fish Diagram:</h6>
<p><a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2018.00631/full" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Frontiers in Endocrinology</a><br>
<a href="https://goodridgebiosamlin.wordpress.com/fish/endocrine-for-fish-in-general/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Sam Lin</a><br>
<a href="https://pixabay.com/es/vectors/sockeye-salm%C3%B3n-negro-salm%C3%B3n-rojo-29838/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Pixabay</a><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmfR1wg6yjYXYJqigVRvLpKMKUN85Sygy54N7rwNne2HXf/sockeye%20pixabay%20small.jpg" alt="sockeye pixabay small.jpg"></p>
<p><img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ8DEYfCy5iPiDs35WywUhqDZdbf7oDiZ9WhZYWXAP4XD/line%20steemstem%20grey.jpg" alt="line steemstem grey.jpg"><br>
Fish for GIFs <img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQXCDVG56dzdo94bLTi2nt5PwGrNMdgWFNXuHmPZ5vTB8/smal%20striped%20fish%20for%20resources.jpg" alt="smal striped fish for resources.jpg"><a href="https://pixabay.com/es/photos/peces-submarino-buceo-el-agua-378286/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">joakant on Pixabay</a><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ8DEYfCy5iPiDs35WywUhqDZdbf7oDiZ9WhZYWXAP4XD/line%20steemstem%20grey.jpg" alt="line steemstem grey.jpg"><br>
Pulsating light GIF <a href="https://pixabay.com/es/illustrations/fractal-luz-fractal-luz-efecto-2038085/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">darksouls on Pixabay</a><br>
<img src="https://steemitimages.com/640x0/https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmQ8DEYfCy5iPiDs35WywUhqDZdbf7oDiZ9WhZYWXAP4XD/line%20steemstem%20grey.jpg" alt="line steemstem grey.jpg"><br>
Sewage Treatment Plant<br>
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<h4><center>Selected Sources Used in Writing This Blog</center></h4>
<ol><li><p>Science Direct: <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/glucocorticoids" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Glucocorticoids</a></p></li><li><p>Science Direct: <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X19307210" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Effects
 of the glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate and its mixture with 
cortisol and different class steroids in adult female zebrafish</a></p></li><li><p>Annals of the New York Academy of Science: <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12114256" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Fifty years of experience with cortisone therapy in the study and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis</a></p></li><li><p>Science Direct: <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/glucocorticoids" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Neuroscience,Glucocorticoids</a></p></li><li><p>Frontiers in Immunology <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01545/full" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">A General Introduction to Glucocorticoid Biology</a></p></li><li><p>Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216001" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Glucocorticoids and Cancer</a></p></li><li><p>American Laboratory <a href="https://www.americanlaboratory.com/914-Application-Notes/340464-An-Effective-Treatment-Strategy-for-Cytokine-Storm-in-Severe-Influenza/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Effective Treatment Strategy for Cytokine Storm in Severe Influenza</a></p></li><li><p>Environmental Science Technology <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869980" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Metabolic
 and reproductive effects of relatively low concentrations of 
beclomethasone dipropionate, a synthetic glucocorticoid, on fathead 
minnows</a></p></li><li><p>Neuroscientifically Challenged <a href="https://www.neuroscientificallychallenged.com/glossary/hpa-axis" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">HPA Axis</a></p></li><li><p>StatPearls (Internet) <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538239/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Physiology, Cortisol</a></p></li><li><p>Journal of Experimental Biology <a href="https://jeb.biologists.org/content/220/9/1693.abstract" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout</a></p></li><li><p>PlosOne <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022669/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">The Different Roles of Glucocorticoids in the Hippocampus and Hypothalamus in Chronic Stress-Induced HPA Axis Hyperactivity</a></p></li><li><p>Mayo Clinic <a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350293" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Addison's Disease</a></p></li><li><p>PosONE <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123411" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Scales Tell a Story on the Stress History of Fish</a></p></li><li><p>Integrative and Comparative Biology <a href="https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/42/3/574/723971" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Cortisol and Pacific Salmon: A New Look at the Role of Stress Hormones in Olfaction and Home-stream Migration</a></p></li><li><p>Oceana <a href="https://oceana.org/marine-life/ocean-fishes/bluebanded-goby" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Bluebanded Goby</a></p></li><li><p>Blue Planet <a href="https://ourblueplanet.bbcearth.com/blog/?article=incredible-sex-changing-fish-from-blue-planet" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Incredible Sex Changing Fish</a></p></li><li><p>Frontiers in Neuroscience <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820965/" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change</a></p></li><li><p>Environmental Science Technology <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es062746o" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Occurrence of Natural and Synthetic Glucocorticoids in Sewage Treatment Plants and Receiving River Waters</a></p></li><li><p>ACS Publications <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es100013x" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">High-Resolution
 Mass Spectrometric Identification and Quantification of Glucocorticoid 
Compounds in Various Wastewaters in The Netherlands</a></p></li><li><p>Environmental Toxicology and Chemisty <a href="https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/etc.3136" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Occurrence
 of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan 
and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune 
responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection</a></p></li><li><p>Scientific Reports <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3515810/#!po=1.47059" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Prevalent Glucocorticoid and Androgen Activity in US Water Sources</a></p></li><li><p>Frontiers in Neuroscience <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2019.01015/full" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Fluoxetine
 Exposure During Sexual Development Disrupts the Stress Axis and Results
 in Sex- and Time- Dependent Effects on the Exploratory Behavior in 
Adult Zebrafish Danio rerio</a></p></li><li><p>Medical Clinics of North America <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025712505703795" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Steroids and the Surgical Patient</a></p></li><li><p><a href="https://apendocrine.weebly.com/amphiprion-species.html" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">AP Endocrine</a></p></li><li><p>The FASEB Journal <a href="https://www.fasebj.org/doi/10.1096/fj.01-0245com" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Gene profiling reveals unknown enhancing and suppressive actions of glucocorticoids on immune cells</a></p></li><li><p><a href="http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/fish/anatomy-and-physiology/endocrine-glands-of-fishes-fish-anatomy/88455" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Endocrine Glands of Fishes | Fish Anatomy</a></p></li><li><p>Critical Review in Toxicology <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17364706" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in fish and its role in fish development and reproduction</a></p></li><li><p>Critical Review in Toxicology <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17364704" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis</a></p></li><li><p>Reviews in Fisheries and Science and Aquaculture <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23308249.2014.918086" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Maternal Thyroid and Glucocorticoid Hormone Interactions in Larval Fish Development, and Their Applications in Aquaculture</a></p></li><li><p>Frontiers in Endocrinology <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2018.00631/full" rel="noopener" title="This link will take you away from steemit.com">Stress Effects on the Mechanisms Regulating Appetite in Teleost Fish</a></p></li></ol>
</div></div>
๐Ÿ‘  , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and 608 others
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@agmoore2 ·
Shared on [Twitter](https://twitter.com/A_G_Moore/status/1219725785705144326)
๐Ÿ‘  
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@lauch3d ·
$0.03
You dont publish often but when you do, you rock it. Followed you on Twitter, nice to see that you promote the Steem outside of our lil bubble. I left a small tip on the agmoore2 wallet, Iยดm too dumb for tipping ๐Ÿ˜….
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@agmoore2 ·
$1.36
2f4jzfg2p
Thank you simply doesn't cover it.  Of course, your tip is amazingly generous and appreciated, but more than that your estimation of my work--that rocks. 

I don't write often because each time is like a mini course for me.  It's more interesting (for me) if I know nothing to start.  I learn and explain.  Quite stimulating, more stimulating than writing from a knowledge base I already possess. 

I do Twitter.  You can see I am quite passionate about many causes, though I'm never hostile or aggressive.  Steemit is my "quiet space".   

It feels very, very good to get your approval--I know how bright you are.  (Too dumbo for tipping &#128514; &#128514;  I'm glad I know how to post a blog and a comment.  Sometimes I mess that up&#128513;)

Thank you again.  I'm content now, even if I don't get another comment  &#127774; 


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@deirdyweirdy ·
$0.02
What's in our water is one of those questions we don't like to think about. After all, we have to drink it no matter what and we can't go quarantining every poor bugger who's on medication, now can we? Besides, the water can't be hazardous, sure *the government* would never allow that!
Our water is fluoridated here so I use a reverse osmosis system that removes most pharmaceuticals. 
Really interesting article, as always!
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vote details (3)
@agmoore2 ·
ja65suwrs
Hi,
Thank you for reading that long blog.  I stick in a lot of pretty pictures, hoping to make the info less dry.  Plus, I love the pretty pictures.
Yeah, what is in our water.? Even if we buy bottled water, what is in that? 

Surprising that so few studies have been done on specific fish species and glucocorticoids.  I thought there would be more.

Thanks so much for stopping by and offering your support :)
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@chappertron ·
Hey @agmoore2,

thanks for this excellent post. And thanks for approaching the issue of hormone-polluted water. In fact, many people today are exposed to a high concentration of hormones in their drinking water. I always thought its primarily estrogens due to pills for birth control. The GC content is probably even worse because of its immune suppressive activity. Probably there is only one possibility to deal with it: Reduce stress because you can't escape drinking water ;-)

Best regards

Chapper
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@agmoore2 ·
0s88yalme
Hi Chapper, 

Yes, we do need water  &#128517; 

Thank you for the kind words.  A fascinating topic.  Seems to me not enough research done on glucocorticoids in water.  I thought the information would jump out at me.  Had to search for those fish :)

Peace, Chapper, and health

Regards, AG
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@steemstem ·
re-agmoore2-steroids-in-our-syst-1579639905-20200122t045547999z
<div class='text-justify'> <div class='pull-left'> <center> <br /> <img width='200' src='https://res.cloudinary.com/drrz8xekm/image/upload/v1553698283/weenlqbrqvvczjy6dayw.jpg'> </center>  <br/> </div> 

This post has been voted on by the **SteemSTEM curation team** and voting trail. It is elligible for support from @curie and @minnowbooster.<br /> 

If you appreciate the work we are doing, then consider supporting our witness [@stem.witness](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=stem.witness). Additional witness support to the [curie witness](https://steemconnect.com/sign/account_witness_vote?approve=1&witness=curie) would be appreciated as well.<br /> 

For additional information please join us on the [SteemSTEM discord]( https://discord.gg/BPARaqn) and to get to know the rest of the community!<br />

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@agmoore2 ·
jy9vkdhh9
Thank you!  Very much appreciated :)
๐Ÿ‘  
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@anaestrada12 ·
Impressive this post a quite complete investigation. Glucocorticoids are drugs that have served us for many years to treat immunological diseases (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, among others). And neoplastic pathology especially in chemotherapy schemes. But it is important to take into account the use of these drugs for a long time because it can cause undesirable diseases such as femoral head necrosis, ostioporosis, cushing syndrome, diabetes, among others.

Greetings ;)
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@agmoore2 ·
t8aqi0nbb
Thank you! You write such thorough, informative blogs that this is high praise indeed.
Greeting and peace to you :)
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@carolkean ·
$0.04
Your graphics alone are stunning - your bibliography is mind blowing -
and the information! Steroids get flushed into the water supply and ultimately affect body development and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems in wildlife and human populations.... this after all the toxins in potatoes (@fitinfun, last week), and polluted air from wildfires, and...
*Off to go stick my head in the sand*
๐Ÿ‘  ,
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@agmoore ·
$0.03
Thank you for liking my graphics.  A gift of Steemit.  Art was always a terrain forbidden to me.  Then I discovered @shaka's collage contest and began to experiment.  Now I take joy in digital creations. 

As for sticking our heads in the sand--life was always dangerous, wasn't it?  What was life expectancy even a mere hundred years ago?  So, don't worry.  Be happy.  Something will get you someday, but not now :))


Thank you so much for stopping by.  I love it when friends read my long blogs.
๐Ÿ‘  
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@fitinfun ·
Haha! The bad news is good news so you can avoid the problems, @carolkean :)

I promise you that avoiding toxins and adding nutrition really will improve your health and life. <div class="pull-right"><sub><a href="/@steemreply/steemreply-stay-in-touch-with-your-steem-network">Posted with ![](https://cdn.steemitimages.com/DQmbroYujK9LNd2s8zDKPUCADmseyJDuNbhwBPrrF7xM8FL/logo-comment.png)</a></sub></div>
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@carolkean ·
I believe you, @fitinfun - and I've made drastic changes in the past ten years. In the Midwest, surrounded by processed food, red meat, nitrites, nitrates, sugar, pastries... beer! pizza! .... @agmoore2, you have so many talents - I would love to learn digital creations even a fraction as good as yours. Please keep writing! I learn so much from you and all of Freewritehouse!
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@abigail-dantes · (edited)
Hi my dear friend,

I've finally found the time to calmly read your work and leave my thoughts on your comment feed :) It's always wonderful to read the product of your thorough and dedicated research. 

Firstly, let me tell you what a great job you did in presenting the HPA axis. Excellent presentation of its components and function. Secondly, I'd like to compliment you on the angle you chose to address this topic : in our systems and in the ecosystems. How smart! :)

Reading your article now has been particularly touching. Only yesterday evening my husband & I went to the cinema to watch [Dark Waters](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dq0NmehbOG0). Whenever I hear about a water crisis I think of lack of rain, of dried up underground water ... now, on top of that, I will be thinking of how we're turning our water into a poisonous substance. 

It wasn't long ago that I came across a study that identified high amounts of antidepressant medication in tap water  <sup>[Ref.](https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3273502/)</sup>, which led me to another study that looks into the presence of detergent in rivers <sup>[Ref.](https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8153479)</sup>. They also highlighted the impact these chemicals have on marine life :(

Oh! by the way ... I'm one of your post readers who have used GCs! Thankfully, I don't rely on them anymore to be strong and healthy! :D

Finally, lovely artwork with the illustration my friend. You do know how to deliver a pleasant read to your audience <3

With love & ever growing admiration.
Your Brazilian friend :*
๐Ÿ‘  ,
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@agmoore2 ·
$0.06
lqll3hixi
Dear Abigail,
Thank you so much for reading my long blog and taking the time to give such a thoughtful response.  I was thinking of you when I wrote (I often think of you, and not just when I write) about the HPA axis and its relationship to chronically stressed people.  So many influences stress has in our lives, and here's another.  

I'm happy you like my embellishments.  These are for the readers, and for my delight.  Creating them is a great exercise.  So often they don't work out and I have to discard the sorry effort.  But, each time that happens I learn, and get better.

Yes, water.  Everything stays with us.  There was a time when we thought we could just throw stuff away.  Now it we know it never goes away, so we need to change, I think, the way we consume and how much we consume.  

I do remember you said once that you were ill for a long time in your 20s.  I'm presuming that's when you had to depend on GCs.  Sometimes, medicine is all that stands between us and illness, or even death.  So, I hate medicine, and I love it.  I'm happy you are past that time, and good health comes to you without medicinal assistance. (I will confess an intimate relationship with GCs, also).

I am going to look at those references later.  Very curious to read the reports, which will augment the many I discovered in my research.  

My dear Brazilian friend, finding your comments on my blog is such a treat.  I look forward to them.  I hope your day (and your husband's day!) is peaceful and fulfilling.

From New York, where at least the illusion of peace presides on a frigid January day,

Love, your friend,
AG
๐Ÿ‘  , , ,
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@lemouth ·
Only way later we learn about consequences of our actions... :/
๐Ÿ‘  ,
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@agmoore ·
So nice to see you here, @lemouth.  Yes, later.  Perhaps we should change the order of things, and learn first? :)
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@lemouth ·
This does not sound very compatible with the human definition :D 
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@owasco ·
Fabulous and intriguing work as always! I sure know the dangers and benefits of these drugs to humans all too well (more on that some other time). That they are affecting even our fish is frightening. Thank you for putting all this together! Everything about it is lovely, despite its dire message. 
๐Ÿ‘  
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@agmoore2 ·
Hi @owasco,
Thank you so much for reading my blog.  
I know your kids have Crohn's and so must be familiar with GCs.  What are we going to do?  Until better understanding of autoimmune diseases develops, we're stuck using less than ideal remedies.  They just control the symptoms and we must tolerate side effects.
Thanks again for the kind assessment of my effort.  Very stimulating to write the blog, despite the 'dire message'.
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@whatisnew ·
Pure perfection with this article once again AG!  Wouldn't it be nice if our water was pure perfection too?  When I first began reading, guess what came to my mind?  Frankenfish!  The purified water sold in bottles just adds more chemicals to the water.  And like you said, some prescriptions help us but look at what we are doing by taking them.  When we go to the bathroom, a very tiny percent of the prescriptions we ingested, goes into the water.  The waste water treatment plants can't even remove them.  All of those tiny particles adds up.  

I enjoyed the images of the colorful fish and of course, your creative GIFs.  I am looking forward to seeing what you will present to us next.  : )
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@agmoore2 ·
$0.04
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Hello @whatisnew,
Thank you very, very much.  Your point about drinking purified water is so apt.  How do we get around this? It seems we need the kind of dedicated research we put into developing nuclear power plants and missile systems.  But the will to protect our water does not exist, at least not on that level.

I am working on a new project...so hard when it starts, but so engrossing.  Right now I'm supposed to be sorting laundry--my husband is doing his bit, but I keep coming back to the computer to look up elusive information:))    

Looking forward to your lovely and informative nature blogs.

Hugs, 
AG
๐Ÿ‘  , ,
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@whatisnew ·
I am looking forward to your new project AG!  I feel exactly the same way you do with research.  Once I get started I want to find all information available and I want it all right now.  Sending *Hugs* right back at you.  : )
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@steemitboard ·
Congratulations @agmoore2! You have completed the following achievement on the Steem blockchain and have been rewarded with new badge(s) :

<table><tr><td><img src="https://steemitimages.com/60x70/http://steemitboard.com/@agmoore2/commented.png?202002110746"></td><td>You got more than 1500 replies. Your next target is to reach 1750 replies.</td></tr>
</table>

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